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Type A personality
Friedman & Rosenman
Type a individual possessed:
Competitiveness and achievement
Impatience and time urgency
Hostility and aggressiveness
It is believed that these characteristics
would lead to raised blood pressure and
raised levels of stress hormone, linked
to ill health.…read more

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Freidman & Rosenman set up the Western
Collaborative Study.
3000 mean aged 39 to 59 living in California.
Examined for signs of CHD, and personality
assessed using a structured interview.
Interview was conducted in a provocative
manner to try to elicit Type A behaviour.
After 8 and a half years, twice as many Type A
participants had died of cardiovascular
problems. Over 12% had had a heart attack.
They also had higher blood pressure and
cholesterol.…read more

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Follow up study of Western
Collaborative study. 22 years after
study. 214/ 15% of the men had died of
CHD. The study confirmed the
importance of CHD risk factors, but
found little evidence of a relationship
between Type A and mortality.
Myrtek. Meta-analysis of 35 studies.
Found an association between CHD and
a component of Type A personality.…read more

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Hardy Personality
Kobasa and Maddi. Some people are
psychologically more hardy than others.
Control ­ Hardy people see themselves
as being in control of their lives.
Commitment ­ Hardy people are
involved with the word around them, and
have a strong sense of purpose.
Challenge ­ Hardy people see life
challenges as problems to be overcome
rather than threats.…read more

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Kobasi. 800 American business executives,
using Holmes and Rahes SRRS. 150 of
participants were classed as high stress.
Some of these had low illness records, while
some had high illness records. So something
else was modifying stress. Individuals in high
stress/low illness group scored high on all
three characteristics of hardy personality.…read more

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