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Page 1

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A2 PERIODIC PATTERNS & TRENDS (Unit 5)




The
Per
iodi
c Tabl
e

Group
number
=
number
of
el
ect
rons
in
out
er
shel
l




HALOGENS


1
2
3
4
5
6
7
0
GROU PS
PERIODS

TRANSI
TION METALS
NOBLE GASES
1
2
3
4
5

6
7

Page 2

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A2 PERIODIC PATTERNS & TRENDS (Unit 5)

















ALKALI METALS




Per
iod
number
=
number
of
shel
ls





THE ELEMENTS ­ Period 3

Page 3

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A2 PERIODIC PATTERNS & TRENDS (Unit 5)






Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar

M. Pt. /oC 98 650 660 1410 44 119 101 189

B. Pt. /oC 881 1120 2450 2680 280 445 34 186

Structure Metal Metal Metal Giant Covalent Covalent Covalent Atomic
Covalent molecular molecular molecular…

Page 4

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A2 PERIODIC PATTERNS & TRENDS (Unit 5)

















Element Structure
Sodium




Magnesium




Aluminium




Silicon



Phosphorus




Sulphur




Chlorine




Argon




Page 5

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A2 PERIODIC PATTERNS & TRENDS (Unit 5)












ELECTRONEGATIVITY
is a measure of the attraction of an atom in a molecule for the electron pair in the covalent bond of which it is a
part.
Variation of properties down a group and across a period


Electronegativity

I
n a
coval
ent…

Page 6

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A2 PERIODIC PATTERNS & TRENDS (Unit 5)









First Ionisation Energy Trends

The
first i
oni
sat
ion
ener
gy
for
an
element
i
s t
he
ener
gy
requi
red
to
remove
the
out
ermost
el
ect
ron
fr
om
a gaseous
atom,
t
hat
i
s t
he
ener…

Page 7

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A2 PERIODIC PATTERNS & TRENDS (Unit 5)



Down
any
group
in
the
Per
iodi
c Tabl
e t
he
ioni
sat
ion
ener
gy
decr
eases.







Thi
s c
a n
be
seen
in
the
graph.





Thi
s i
s because:









Variation of Ionisation Energy across a Period








I
f…

Page 8

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A2 PERIODIC PATTERNS & TRENDS (Unit 5)

Na t
o Ar
in
the
Per
iodi
c Tabl
e
i
s consi
dered:



The gener
al
tr
end
is
that
t
he
Ioni
sat
ion
ener
gy
incr
eases
fr
om
lef
t
to
ri
ght
acr
oss
a per
iod.













Page 9

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A2 PERIODIC PATTERNS & TRENDS (Unit 5)

Atomic Radius

The
atomi
c r
adi
us
is
basi
cal
ly
used
to
descr
ibe
the
size
of
an
atom.

The
lar
ger
t
he
atomi
c r
adi
us,
t
he
lar
ger
t
he
atom.







The
atomi
c radi
us…

Page 10

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A2 PERIODIC PATTERNS & TRENDS (Unit 5)


The
graph
shows
the
var
iat
ion
of
the
atomi
c r
adi
us
acr
oss
Per
iod
3 i
n t
he
Per
iodi
c Tabl
e.

No
atomi
c r
adi
us
is
shown
for
ar
gon?














Variation of melting point…

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