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Perceptual Set
This is the tendency to perceive particular
aspects of stimulus
We have a readiness to note certain pieces of
information about an object/image
It can depend on psychological state, past
experiences or emotions…read more

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Expectation
This links in with Gregory's theory
We anticipate what we are going to perceive
due to the active nature of perception
Bruner and Minturn (1955) demonstrated that
expectation affects perception by showing
participants the number 13 set in the context of
letters or numbers
12
A 13 C
14…read more

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We also fail to recognise mistakes because we
already have set expectations in our mind
Once
upon a
a time…read more

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Bugelski and Alampay 1961
Participants were shown either animal pictures
or unrelated pictures prior to being shown the
ambiguous figure of rat/man
Participants shown animals were more likely to
perceive a rat in the image due to expectation…read more

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Evaluation
Police are trained to notice and remember
registration plates and physical characteristics
Printing errors often go unnoticed because we
expect what we read to be correct in the
context
These are both ecologically valid…read more

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