People, work and development

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GCSE Geography - People, Work and Development
Glossary card
Adult Literacy - The percentage of people over 16 years old in a country or
region that can read and write.
Arable Farming - The type of farming that involves growing crops.
The Brandt Report - A report produced in 1980 that divided the world into
More Economically Developed Countries (MEDCs) and Less Economically
Developed Countries (LEDCs).
Development Agencies - These are created by the UK government to provide help
in the form of grants, loans, ready-built factories and infrastructure to attract
investment into areas of economic decline and high unemployment.
Economic recession - A period of decline during which some industrial activity
closes, people become unemployed and the negative multiplier operates.
Economic recovery - A period during which economic activity rises from a period
of economic recession, new employment opportunities are created and the positive
multiplier operates.
European Union (EU) - a free-trade area established within the member countries
in 1993.
Favela A Brazilian shanty town or squatter settlement.
Formal employment - Official jobs with set hours and rates of pay. People who
are formally employed pay direct taxes to the government.
Free trade - The movement of goods and services within a country or trade group
which does not require the payment of custom duties.
Globalisation - The expansion of a company from its original country to a position
where it has branches in many countries. These have an important influence on
world trade.
Gross Domestic Product (GDP) - The total value of all the goods and services
produced in a country in one year by all the people living in that country.
Gross National Product (GNP) - The total value of all the goods and services
produced by the people of a country in one year, whether or not they are living
there at the time.
Informal employment - Unofficial jobs that have no set hours or rates of pay.
People who are informally employed may avoid paying tax and are usually
Infrastructure The structure of communications and services required to support
economic development e.g. power supplies, education, health, transport.
Intermediate aid - Help usually given by organizations in MEDCs to people living
in LEDCs. It often involves small scale, labour-intensive schemes aimed at
providing a sustainable future.
Multi-national companies (MNCs) - Large companies with a branch in more than
one country. Decisions are made at a headquarters in one of those countries. They
are also known as trans- national corporations (TNCs).
National Insurance Contributions - A system of compulsory deductions from pay
from all adults below pensionable age and from employers in the UK. The money
raised provides benefits such as social security, unemployment benefits and state
Negative Multiplier Effect - A downward spiral of events that follow the decline
of investment in a region such as decreased spending, the loss of other jobs and

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Positive Multiplier Effect - An upward spiral of events that follow a major
investment in a region such as increased spending, the creation of other jobs and
Quality of life The happiness, well-being and satisfaction of a person. Among the
many factors that influence quality of life are the person's family, income and
access to services.
Quota A numerical limit on immigrants or on imports.…read more


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