These are most of the notes you will need for p.e. They are from a textbook, class book and some from bitesize. I hope they aree usefullll :)

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  • Created on: 15-05-10 16:40
Preview of P.E GCSE NOTES :)

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PHYSICAL= Losing weight, imp posture, imp/enhanced body shape, reduces stress related illnesses and able
to do everyday things.
MENTAL= Feel good/Enjoyment, release from stress, gain confidence and stimulate competition.
SOCIAL= meeting new people, making and spending time with friends, stimulates co-operation and
teamwork and learn leadership.
Health Related Fitness CMsMeFBc
Cardiovascular Fitness= the ability to exercise the whole body for long periods of time. Sometimes called
Stamina. E.g. a marathon runner.
Muscular Strength= The amount of force a muscle can exert against a resistance. E.g. weight lifting, throwing
and rowing.
Muscular Endurance= The ability to use voluntary muscles many times without becoming tired. E.g.
swimming, cycling etc.
Flexibility= is the range of movement possible at a joint. This lessens injury as it helps performers to stretch
and reach further.
Body Composition= The percentage of body weight which is fat, muscle and bone. Helps performers
depending on the type of sport they play. High level of fat is good for sumo wrestlers and low levels good for
a distance runner.
Skill Related Fitness (abc p.r.s)
Agility= The ability to change the body's position and direction quickly whilst keeping their entire body under
control. E.g. dodging or a goalkeeper.
Balance= The ability of the performer to retain their centre of mass over their base of support without falling
over. E.g. a gymnast balancing on one leg. This balance can be either:
Static- when your body is stationary
Dynamic- when there is movement
Co-ordination= the ability to use two or more body parts together accurately. This helps all athletes to move
smoothly and quickly. E.g. a tennis serve
Power = the ability to use strength at speed and release maximum force very quickly. This helps athletes to
jump high, throw far or sprint quickly. Power = Strength x Speed.
Reaction time = the amount of time it takes for a performer to initiate movement after the presentation of a
stimulus. E.g. sprinting and swimming to make a fast start.
Speed= is the rate at which an individual is able to perform a movement or cover a set distance. This helps
all games players to move into position or get away from opponents quickly. E.g. a 100m sprint.
Health- A state of complete social, mental and physical well being, not merely the absence of disease or
Fitness- The ability to meet the demands of the environment.
Performance- How well a task is completed.
Exercise- A form of physical activity done primarily to improve one's health and physical fitness.
Aesthetic Appreciation- Recognising the quality of a well performed skill/activity.
Individual Needs = the training programme is designed to suit you and what you need. For example personal
fitness needs based on age, gender and fitness level.
Specificity= training must be SPECIFIC (matched) to the needs of the sporting activity and REPLICATE the sport

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Progression= Is GRADUALLY INCREASING the amount of exercise you do. This will reduce the risk of injury.
Overload= Fitness can only be improved by training MORE than you normally do. This is where `FITT' comes
in, as to achieve overload you increase the following: Frequency(how often), Intensity(how hard), Time(how
long) and Type(method of training).
Reversibility= any adaptation that takes place as a result of training will be reversed (lost) when you stop
training.…read more

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Warm Up - done to reduce chance of injury.
1. Pulse raiser (light aerobic work) to inc HR and body temp e.g. jogging
2. Stretching to prepare specific muscles, ligaments and joints.
3. Skill related exercise- sport skill practice/drill.
Main Activity
Cool Down ­ Used to get rid of lactic acid by a light jog/walk and stretches to keep the blood moving and
therefore prevents muscles and joints becoming stiff and sore. It also helps you recover more quickly.…read more

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Muscular endurance improves
Muscles, tendons and ligaments around joints get stronger
Joints become more stable and flexibility at joints increases
Bone width and density increases.
The cardiovascular system
Immediate effects when first exercising:
Heart contracts more often ­ increased heart rate.
Heart contracts more powerfully ­ increased stroke volume, which is the
volume of blood pumped from heart with each beat.
Blood diverted to muscles, eg it is diverted from the digestive system to the
Blood temperature rises.…read more

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Carbohydrates Provides most of our energy Running. Athletes in Starches found in
for muscles. Provides quick training will eat more Pasta, cereals,
energy. 60% of our diet 'carbs'. Marathon bread and potatoes.
should comprise 'carbs'. runners will 'load' Also sugar, but this
before the event. must be eaten in
Fats Provides slow energy. 25% Walking and low Oils, meats, dairy
NB Unsaturated fats are of our diet should be fat. impact exercise it products, nuts and
healthy.…read more

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These factors also affect their participation and performance in sport. If you consume
more energy than you use you will put on weight. If you consume less energy than you use you will lose
weight. People who under-eat will not have enough energy to perform effectively.
OVERWEIGHT= being significantly heavier than your optimum weight (what weight you should be for your
age, gender, bone structure, muscle Girth and height).…read more

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Anabolic agents Help athletes to train harder and build Increased aggression and
steroids muscle therefore faster reactions. kidney damage
Artificial substance top up and more Heart Disease
supplies of testosterone. Liver Damage
Allow the body to recover from heavy Growth of face and body hair
training much quicker. Deepening of the voice
Baldness and development of
breasts (males)
Diuretics Remove fluid from the body.…read more

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Blood Doping -Increase oxygen carrying capacity. Kidney and heart failure
- Several weeks before a comp blood is
-The blood rebuilds the amount and then
prior to the comp you re-inject creating
more blood cells than usual by 20%
-Hard to detect as the blood is the athletes
Social drugs
Social drugs are usually taken to help people relax, or on occasion to give a feeling of having more energy.
Some are banned in many sports and are also illegal.…read more

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Verrucae's= A viral skin wart usually on the feet and transmitted in moist areas. You can easily catch them in
swimming pools as they are very infectious.
Solution= wear a verrucae sock and creams or remove them medically.
Injuries can be avoided by:
*Following rules ­ created to allow the sport to flow properly but also to prevent the players from injury e.g.
no high tackles in rugby.
*Clothing/Equipment- very specific for most sports.…read more

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Soft tissue injuries
Sprains - when ligaments are overstretched or torn around a joint, eg twisted or sprained ankle.
Strains - when a muscle or tendon is overstretched or torn, eg pulled muscle.
Bruises - caused when blood vessels burst under the skin following impact.
TREATMENT= R.I.C.E should warm up to try and prevent it.
Open- when the bone sticks out through the skin.…read more



great piece thanks so much

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