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Teaching Styles
The style of instruction that we use is important. It is determined by a number of factors:
The skill we are trying to improve
The nature of the learning situation
The nature of the learner
Teaching styles
Teaching styles differ in two respects ­ the proportion of the decisions that are made by
the learner and the proportion of the decisions made by the teacher.
Mosston identified ten different styles on his spectrum. As the teaching style moves from
style A to style J, the learner takes increasing responsibility for their learning:
Style A: Command
Style B: Practice
Style C: Reciprocal
Style D: Self-check
Style E: Inclusion
Style F: Guided Discovery
Style G: Divergent
Style H: Individual
Style I: Learner Initiated
Style J: Self Teaching…read more

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Teaching Styles
Command style (Style A)
Command Style Teaching
What is it? When it is used?
·When the teacher makes all the decisions for the ·If the teacher has limited experience and lacks
learner ­ authoritarian style. confidence it allows them to take full control of the
·All the learners are treated in the same way, there is session.
no room for an individual to do anything their way. ·If the activity is complex or has an element of risk the
·Learners take no responsibility for their own learning greater control of the teacher will allow the learner to
and are not encouraged to think why they should do grasp the basics and not get hurt.
something in a particular way. ·If the learner has no prior experience or is quite young
·Learners not required to think of alternative ways of - it will allow them to grasp the basics.
achieving the objective. ·A poor learning situation (e.g. large numbers, little
equipment, limited time) it may be more effective with
the teacher regaining control.
Advantages Disadvantages
·Retains teacher control ·Does not allow for the development of understanding
·Most appropriate with poor learning situations ·Restricts development
·Reduces element of risk ·Prevents learners taking responsibility for their own
·Allows learner to grasp basics of a task learning
·Become restricted as performers (e.g. no alternative
plans if one fails).…read more

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Teaching Styles
Reciprocal learning (style C)
Reciprocal learning
What is it? When it is used?
·When performers learn from each other. ·When the teacher is more confident/knowledgeable and they
·The teacher may demonstrate the skill and how it is to be done. feel able to let learners help each other. However, the learner
·The learners work in pairs ­ one learner is the performer and may still need expert teacher support.
the other is an observer who comments on the performance ·Often supported by prompt sheets given to the observer to help
(gives feedback and offers improvement advice). The learners them see key movements.
then swap roles.
·This is a more cognitive approach and leads to thorough
understanding of the objective.
Advantages Disadvantages
·Can be effective if the task is clear, has clear progression, and ·If learners are poorly motivated then it is unlikely they will
the essential elements are easily observed and commented upon. give the observation or feedback role enough attention.
·Can often help when the learning situation is poor ­ the ·If the learners are immature (e.g. young) they may find it
observer can support the teacher who is unable to see everybody, difficult to give or receive criticism.
can keep half of the group actively involved even if there are ·Requires careful monitoring and frequent input by the teacher
limited facilities. to ensure that correct learning is taking place.
·Develops a more in-depth understanding of what the learner
needs to achieve.
·Improves confidence and communication skills.…read more

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Teaching Styles
Discovery learning (styles F/G)
Discovery learning
What is it? When it is used?
·The objective is set by the teacher (in the form of a ·Requires teacher to have a good knowledge of the
problem), and the learner has to work out the solution. learner or group and to have the confidence for them to
·Requires the teacher to lead the learning by providing be working without direct intervention.
information, cues and asking questions to lead the ·Works best when there are a range of possible
learner down the correct path. outcomes or when the skill requires decision making or
·Much deeper understanding of task but is a longer judgement.
process. ·Works well when progression of sequence is clear and
open to discovery.
·Requires engaged, motivated and mature learners to
work best as they are able to stick with a task.
Advantages Disadvantages
·Often motivates learners as they can gain great ·Hard to do with younger learners with a short
satisfaction of learning by themselves ­ high sense of attention span ­ lack of motivation.
achievement and fulfilment. ·Time consuming approach, hard to use in limited time
·Can help overcome the problem of a large group. situations.
·Requires reasonable level of equipment and fair
weather conditions.…read more

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Teaching Styles
Problem-solving approach
Problem-solving
What is it? When it is used?
·Similar to discovery learning. ·Requires teacher to have a good knowledge of the
·The teacher sets an objective (e.g. getting past an learner or group and to have the confidence for them to
opponent), and the learner finds their own method of be working without direct intervention.
solving the problem. ·Works best when there are a range of possible
·The solution will be determined by the learners outcomes or when the skill requires decision making or
ability, physical attributes and level of skill. judgement.
·Each learner finds their own solution ­ some may be ·Works well when progression of sequence is clear and
more effective than others. open to discovery.
·Requires engaged, motivated and mature learners to
work best as they are able to stick with a task.
·`Games for understanding'
Advantages Disadvantages
·Cognitive approach ·Hard to do with younger learners with a short
·Greater understanding of task attention span ­ lack of motivation.
·Can motivate if correct solution is found ·Time consuming approach, hard to use in limited time
situations.
·Requires reasonable level of equipment and fair
weather conditions.…read more

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