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Pathogens and Immunology
Description: A disease causing organism

Pathogens can be transmitted by droplets, - in the air - direct contact with the skin, through food
contamination, the urino-genital system and through the gas exchange system.

The body prevents entry of pathogens with a thick layer of skin, mucus, stomach…

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Low amounts of physical activity

How do we respond to a break in our defences?
Our response is divided into two parts; Non-specific and Specific response.

Non-specific response

Physical barrier
Inflammation due to the blood vessels in the affected area becoming more permeable and
so more white blood cells…

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Antibodies coat pathogens by forming antigen-antibody so that they are easier to engulf and
prevent them from entering the host's cells. They bind with and neutralise the toxins produced from
the pathogen.

What is an antigen? Specific response
An antigen is a protein or carbohydrate on the surface of a…

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Vaccinations stimulate primary response so that when the actual pathogen is encountered, the
secondary response is strong enough to prevent the disease from developing and reducing the
incubation time.

Types of vaccine:
Live vaccines
o The pathogens in the vaccine are treated so they only divide a few times…

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The drug accumulates in the body where there are cancer cells


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