Pathogens & Diease Unit 1!

Pathogens and Diseases

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Pathogens & Disease
Disease: A disease is a disorder of a tissue, organ or system of an organ; as a result,
symptoms are evident
Pathogen: A micro-organism that can infect a host organism and cause disease
Interface: Where internal and an external environment meet
Endemic: A disease always found within the population
Epidemic: Outbreak of a disease spreading rapidly over a population
Pandemic: Outbreak of a disease globally
Causes
Infectious - caused by pathogens
Genetic - inherited from parents
Lifestyle related - influenced by behaviour and lifestyle choices
Nutrient deficiency - caused by over-eating, unbalanced or inadequate diets
Environmental - disruption of bodily processes due to the environment
Auto-immune - the immune system mistakenly recognises part of the body as being
foreign and attacks it
Transmission Modes
Direct physical contact (Non Sexual) - Touching an infected person
Direct physical contact (Sexual) - Oral or Penetrative Sex
Droplet Contact - Coughing or sneezing on another person
Indirect Contact - Touching contaminated Surfaces and kissing
Vertical Transmission - From mother to child
Faecal-Oral Transmission - Contaminated food or water sources
Vector Bourne Transmission - Often insects, but can be other animals
Interfaces
Digestive system
Respiratory system
Reproductive & urinary system

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Skin
Defences
Skin - Produces keratin which forms a barrier
Tears & Saliva - Contains Lysosome which kill micro-organisms
Stomach Acid - Kills ingested pathogens
Cilia & Mucus ­ Mucus traps inhaled pathogens, the Cilia pushes them up the
oesophagus
Blood ­ Contains clotting agents and white blood cells attack pathogens…read more

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