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Particles and Radiation ­ Victoria Halloran

Constituents of an atom

An atom is made up of protons, neutrons and electrons.




Ion ­ A charges atom caused by the gain or loss of electrons.

Specific charge
charge to mass ratio ­ Q/M
For a neural atom you have to remember the…

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Alpha decay




Beta decay




Photon model of electromagnetic radiation




Emitted in short `bursts' each burst leaving the source in a different direction.
Are emitted by a charged particle when it loses energy.
This can happen when a fast moving electron is stopped ­ eg. X-rays
This also happens when an…

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Pair production

A process of converting energy to mass in which a gamma
ray photon has enough energy to produce a
particle-antiparticle pair.
Hfmin= 2E0




Annihilation

The process by which a particle and its antiparticle meet and their
mass gets converted in the form of a pair of gamma ray…

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Classification of particles

Hadrons

Subject to the strong force and weak interaction
Can be split into two sub groups; baryons and mesons

Baryons
Type of hadron made up of 3 quarks.
Protons and neutrons
(Protons are the only stable baryon into which other baryons
eventually decay ­ in particular the…

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Rutherford Scattering Experiment

Demonstrated that every atom contains a positively charged nucleus which is much smaller
than the atom where all the positive charge and most of the
mass of the atom is located.
Rutherford proposed a model of the atom to consist of :
-A heavy, positively charges nucleus…

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