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Psychology revision part B ­ Sleep States

The nature of sleep and lifespan changes:
The developmental approach: considers human behaviour from a perspective of how it changes
over the course of a person's lifespan. Focuses on averages and how they are different at all ages.

The Nature of Sleep:

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Cultural differences in sleep patterns:
Tanjala et al (1993): surveryed 11-16 year olds from 11 EU countries (over 40,000 children).
Was found that Israeli children slept least ­ in average of about 8.5 hours. And swiss children
slept most on average of about 9.5 hours.

Explanations of sleep:
Restoration Theory:…

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Crick and Mitchison: during REM sleep unwanted memories are discarded and more
important memories are accessible
REM may consolidate procedural memory SWS consolidation of semantic memory and
episodic memory.

[The effects of sleep deprivation ­ look to sheet: however remember case studies here are used
and so participants are likely…

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Zepelin and rechtschaffen (1974): smaller animals with high metabolic rate sleep more than
larger animals
Supports the view that energy conservation is a main reason for sleep.
However, exceptions such as sloths which are very large animals and sleep for 20 hours.
Allison and Cicchette (1976): species who have a…


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