parliamentary law-making notes

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Parliamentary Law-making
Parliament- is made up of 1) House of Commons- this house has elected MPs, 2) House of
Lords- this house has lords that have a title or have been appointed to their position 3) the
queen. ALL three parts have to agree to make the law.
Treaty of Rome 1957 ­ the founding treaty of the European Economic Community now known
as the European Union
Bill- a draft bill that is introduced into parliament
The crown- the head of state e.g. the queen
Human rights act - (HRA) 1998- an act of parliament that incorporates the European
convention on human rights into UK domestic law
European convention on human rights (ECHR) 1950- an international treaty signed by 47
European countries with the common purpose of protecting fundamental rights and
freedoms of citizens
Devolution- is the transfer of rights, powers, or an office (public or private) from one
government to another. Or the granting of permission from the gov to allow the Scottish
and welsh assembly to make certain laws
European communities act (ECA) 1972- the act of parliament that incorporates EU law into U.K
domestic law. The effect of this act now means that any other acts of parliament are now
subordinate to European law.
Government- runs day to day of the country. It's drawn from MPs from the largest party who
has one the most seats in the House of Commons and a smaller percentage of lords. The
head is a prime minister who is assisted by senior ministers in the cabinet.
Law Commission- Is a full time law reform body which is independent from the government. It
was created by the Law Commission act 1965. This act gives the commission its powers
and duties.
Codification- Bringing together all the law both statutory and judge ­ made law (Common Law)
on a particular topic into one new act.
Consolidation- bringing all the EXISTING statutory laws into one new act
Referendum- an opinion poll
Repeal- If a law is wrong then the law commission withdraw the law
Actus Reus (Guilty act)- a criminal action regarded as a constituent element of a crime, as
compared with the state of mind of the perpetrator (criminal), result of voluntary bodily
Mens Rea (Guilty mind) - A criminal intention or knowledge that an act in wrong. It is assumed to
be an ingredient of all criminal offences although some minor offences are punishable
irrespective of it
Media- the means of communication that can reach large numbers of people such as television,
radio, newspapers and internet
Pressure groups- an interest group that that attempts to influence legislation through the use of
propaganda and the lobbying technique
House of commons- the elective lower house/chamber of the parliament. This contains elective
House of lords- the non-elective upper chamber/ house of the British parliament

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Democracy- is a government by the people a form of government in which the supreme power is
vested in the people and exercised directly by them or by their elected agents under a free
electoral system
Autocracy- in which one person has unlimited authority over others, the government or power of
an absolute monarch
Dictatorship- a country, government or form of government in which absolute power is exercised
by a ruler who has unrestricted control without an inheritor
Communism- Classless society in which every is…read more

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Each of the law commissioners is supported by a team of barristers, solicitors,
parliamentary displacements, researchers, and admin staff
Under the s3 of the 1965 act the law commission is the keep under review all the law,
repeal obsolete law and simplification and modernisation of law
Advantages of the law commission
The law commission has lots of legal non-political expertise.
Investigations are thorough so recommendations are well informed.
Wording of the bills are accurate to avoid problems when the law is enforced
The L.…read more

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It is also important for all law commission to suggest changes to existing law to modernise
them (keep them up to date.) Also they create new areas in law in taking social development
and technical changes
E.g.…read more

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Jamie Oliver campaign for healthier school meals and achieved the Education Regulation
This is how the media can affect parliament
Media affects the public's opinion
Public affects the number of votes that the government can win
Votes affect parliament
Parliament affects the laws
Advantages of the media
Raise government awareness of certain matters that the public is concerned about.…read more

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E.g. the environment group Greenpeace and the Human Rights group the Amnesty
Often considered outsider groups and less likely for them to be consulted or have any
links with MPs or gov ministers.
E.g. the RSPCA is a long established charity that has a lot of support from the British
public as they have campaigned for many years for animal legislation and have used
methods such as leaflets and multimedia advertising.…read more

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A bill must be debated and approved by both the Houses of Commons and Lords and
receive Royal Assent
The composition of the House of Commons
Contains 650 of members MPs
Each MP represents a constituency /area
Elected every 5 years at a general election
Gov drawn from the party with the largest party with the most elected MPs
The leader is called the Prime Minister
The PM and his chosen ministers are make up the cabinet, the central decision making
body in the Gov.…read more

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To open each parliamentary session and reads a speech that is prepared by the gov
outlining the proposed laws to be considered in coming session
Give regard assent to legislation
To appoint and dismiss the prime minister
Types of Bills
There are 3 main types of bills- Public bills, private bills, Hybrid bills.
Public bills affect the public, some public bills apply to the whole U.…read more

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To become an act of parliament a bill must pass the following stages:…read more

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The advantages or parliamentary law making
Scrutiny- the legislative process is thorough. There are 3 reading and 2 stages in each of
the houses of parliament. There are several opportunities for debate, scrutiny and
amendments, ensuring there are no mistakes and poor drafting can be corrected
Democratic- the process is democratic as the MPs in the House of Commons are
democratically elected to make laws. During debates each MP should have the opportunity
to put forward the view of their constituency.…read more


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