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AS Edexcel-Parliament


o Often referred to as being the 'debating chamber of the nation.'
o A place where laws are made and where the government also known as the executive
confronts the opposition.
o Parliament is the UK's supreme law-making body
o Government does not operate separately…

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AS Edexcel-Parliament

o Hereditary peers: inherit their titles, have the right to sit in the HOL. In descending order;
dukes, marquises, earls, viscounts and barons, and female equivalents. Since 1999 only a
maximum of 92 peers are permitted to sit.
o 'Lords Spiritual':these are bishops and archbishops of the Church…

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AS Edexcel-Parliament

Functions of Parliament:
Parliamentis sometimes often classified as an 'assembly', a 'legislature' or a 'deliberative body.'
The branch of government that has the power to make laws through the formal enactment of
legislation.Parliament makes laws as it is the supreme legislature in the UK. It can create…

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AS Edexcel-Parliament

The committee reports back to the HOC on any changes made during the committee
stage, the Commons may amend/ reverse changes at this stage

6) Third reading:

Replicating the second reading. It is a debate of the full chamber, enabling the HOC to take
an overview of the…

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AS Edexcel-Parliament

o MPs are predominantly middle-ages 70% are between 40 & 59, average age in 2015 is 51

o MPs are better educated than most UK citizens, 2/3 are graduates. 32% have attended
private schools
Sexual orientation:

o 32 openly gay MPs

Scrutiny and oversight:
Parliament does not…

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AS Edexcel-Parliament

Government policy can be examined through legislative debates& throughemergency
debates that are held at the discretion of the Speaker
Adjournment debates enable backbenchers to initiate debates at the end of the
parliamentary day
Ministers are required to make formal statements to Parliament on major policy issues


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AS Edexcel-Parliament

o Respect for Parliament has been undermined by scandals such as 'cash for questions' and
'cash for peerages'

Select committees: Often seen as more effective than Question Time

However some of its limitations are:

o The government has a majority on each of these committees who reflect the…

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AS Edexcel-Parliament

It suggests that political and constitutional power have shifted firmly from Parliament to the
executive. Parliament is executive- dominated & acts as little more than a 'rubber stamp' for
government policy. Therefore it can be argued that Parliament has no meaningful policy influence,
this model was widely accepted…

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AS Edexcel-Parliament

Labour governments under Tony Blair and Gordon Brown (2001-10) During Blair's second and
third terms, Labour backbenchers rebelled against the government on over 20% of all divisions, for
example, there were major rebellions on high profile issues such as university 'top up' fees (72)
whilst the Iraq War…

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AS Edexcel-Parliament

is not due to voting patterns but rather, due to the tendency of FPTP voting system to
over-represent large parties.

However, the size of a government's majority has also been crucial. The larger the government's
majority, the weaker the backbenchers will usually be.

A minority government is one…


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