Parental investment


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Parental Investment
A01 Studies A02/3
Paternal investment Paternal investment Paternal investment
Minimum obligatory investment ­ human males less than Reid (1997) ­ supports claim that males do contribute to Dunbar (1995) ­ where males can increase the success in
females parenting by providing resources - allows family to live in childrearing, it will pay them to do so. Means males restrict their
Women produce limited offspring ­ males potentially healthier environments ­ decreases child mortality. reproductive opportunities ­ invest more in each offspring
unlimited Child support tax, where a man must invest finances into his
Males can walk away after achieving off-spring children ­ uses males resources so less likely to want to go in
Goetz & Shackelford (2009) ­ indiscriminate mating = many short-term relationships due to the cost of doing so.
costly to females ­ not costly to males.
Cuckoldry The benefits and risks of cuckoldry The benefits and risks of cuckoldry
Human males make considerable investment in children ­ Daly & Wilson (1988) ­ women may become abandoned ­ By using cuckoldry women may receive greater social support
greater concern than females about the fidelity of their partner may become violent to her or other male. from other males ­ perhaps higher-quality genes for children ­
mates (Miller, 1998) but does come with a risk
Laws have been put in place to prevent the risk of cuckoldry;
these are adultery laws which prevent people from participating in
more than one marriage.
Sexual and emotional jealousy Evidence for sex differences in jealousy Evidence for sex differences in jealousy
Man whose mate unfaithful ­ risks investing in children Buss et al (1992) ­ found male US students indicated more Harris (2003) ­ found men tended to respond with greater
not his own. concern about sexual infidelity ­ females expressed more arousal to any sexual imagery ­ challenged view that sex
Woman whose mate was unfaithful ­ resources diverted concern about emotional infidelity differences in jealousy are adaptive response in males and
away from her and the family
Sexual jealousy evolved as a solution to these issues
(Buss, 1995)
Men ­ more jealous of the sexual act (to avoid cuckoldry)
Women ­ more jealous of the shift in emotional focus
(loss of resources)
Maternal investment Extra-Marital affairs as a consequence of maternal Extra-Marital affairs as a consequence of maternal
Females produce fewer gametes then men do sperm. investment investment
Males can't be certain they're the father, whereas women Baker and Bellis (1990) ­ results from a magazine article on 2700 Women ­ marry man who has resources and is caring ­ `shop
UK women ­ estimated 14% of population were products of around' for a man with good genes (studs) but have no resources
can be certain they are the mother of the child.
extramarital mating's. Baker and Bellis = good sample size
Why do women invest more? Issues, debates approaches
Brain size increased ­ response to adaptive pressures Deterministic ­ says that in every relationship the female will
among our distant ancestors ­ more difficult childbirth. invest more in the child than the male.

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Parental Investment
Childbirth in humans occurs earlier in development ­ Free will ­ some males make the choice to stay at home and look
human infants born relatively immature after the children (domestic husbands) especially over the past
Human females breastfeed young and care for them 20-30 years
during this prolonged immaturity Supported by the media, who very regularly portrays women as
Make greater prenatal contribution and postnatal doing domestic work and looking after children.…read more

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