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Table of Contents
A: Static electricity
Static electricity
Electric charge
Electric fields
Electric current
B: Simple circuits
Electric circuits
Electron flow
Convectional current
C: Electric current
Amperes or amps (A)
Series circuits
Parallel circuits
D: Controlling current
Potential difference
Resistance…read more

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Ohm's law
Variable resistors
Light-dependent resistors (LDR)
E: Potential difference
F: Electrical power
Work done
G: Domestic appliances
H: An electricity supply
Electromagnetic induction
Alternating current (a.c.)
Direct current (d.c.…read more

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A: Static electricity
Static electricity is an electric charge that has built up on an object.
Plastic can become charged by rubbing it against an object.
Two charges the same repel.
Two different forces attract.
Electric charge is the overall charge that occurs when electrons are added or lost.
There are two types of charge; positive and negative.
Charge is not made when two objects are rubbed together, but moved around.…read more

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B: Simple circuits
Electric circuits are closed loops of conductors connected to a battery or power
Circuits need to be complete for them to work.
Effects of the circuit, for example turning on a bulb, are immediate because there is
current in the components all the time.
Charges are present throughout a circuit at all times.
When the circuit is a closed loop, the battery or power supply makes all the charges
move.…read more

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C: Electric current
Ammeters are used to measure the electrical current of a circuit.
Amperes or amps (A) are the measurement of current, and show the amount of
charge going through an ammeter every second.
Current is not used up!
Series circuits are circuits with a single loop, so the charge passes through the
components one at a time.
Current is the same in all parts of a series circuit, because the voltage provides the
energy, and current is just use to transfer it.…read more

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D: Controlling current
Voltage is the measure of `push' a battery or power supply exerts on the current.
Potential difference is the same as voltage.
Voltage is measured by voltmeters in volts (V).
Bigger voltage = bigger current.
Simple batteries are made from two pieces of different metals in a salt solution or an
The voltage depends on the metals and solutions used to make the battery.
Resistance is the measurement of how easy or difficult it is to push current through a
component.…read more

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Variable resistors are used to control the current in a circuit, and are resistors
where their resistance can be changed.
Light-dependent resistors (LDR) are variable resistors that reduce the
resistance as the brightness increases.
Thermistors are variable resistors that change its resistance as the temperature
changes. Most commonly, the hotter the temperature, the lower the resistance.
When resistors are connected in series, the total resistance is the sum of the resistance
of all the resistors.…read more

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E: Potential difference
If the voltage of the battery or power supply is increased, the potential difference
across the components in the circuit also increases.
Voltmeters are connected in parallel.
In parallel circuits, the voltage in each branch is equal to the voltage of the power supply.
In series circuits, the voltage is shared between the components, so the resistor or
component with the biggest resistance also has the biggest potential difference.…read more


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