P2: Nuclear Physics

Here is a document for students taking AQA Additional Science. This document is based on ionisation, nuclear fission, uclear fusion, background radiation, radiation decayand the plum pudding model from the P2 (physics) section. I hope this helps you to revise! Please rate and comment on how to improve :) Also, I have a study gorup called AQA Additional Science where we discuss topics such as this one and many more. Feel free to become a member, the more the merrier!

HideShow resource information
  • Created by: I P B
  • Created on: 30-12-09 14:34
Preview of P2: Nuclear Physics

First 161 words of the document:

P2: Nuclear Physics
For this section, you need to know about the atomic structure (look
at the revision notes in IPBs section called C2: Atomic Structure
Isotopes are atoms of the same element that have a different
number of neutrons.
So the atomic number of the element will be the same as the atom
has the same number of protons but the mass number will be
Radioactive Decay
Radioactive isotopes are atoms with unstable nuclei which may
disintegrate and emit radiation
This is radioactive decay which results in the formation of a
different atom with a different number of protons
An unstable nucleus becomes more stable by emitting an alpha
(), beta () or gamma () radiation.
Alpha () Decay
The original isotope decays by ejecting an alpha () particle from
the nucleus.

Other pages in this set

Page 2

Preview of page 2

Here's a taster:

This particle is made up of two protons and two neutrons (a helium
Its relative mass is 4 and its relative charge is 2. This is because
when you add together the number of neutrons and the number of
protons you get 4. Since there are 2 protons which are charged,
the relative charge is 2. This can be represented by the symbol
A new particle is formed with alpha decay.…read more

Page 3

Preview of page 3

Here's a taster:

K decays by emitting a beta particle. So it forms a
nucleus of the Calcium isotope 4020Ca.
Gamma () Decay
Gamma () radiation is emitted by some unstable nuclei after and
alpha particle or a beta particle has been emitted
Gamma () radiation is uncharged and has no mass so it does not
change the number of protons or the number of neutrons in a
Background Radiation
Radiation occurs naturally all around us.…read more

Page 4

Preview of page 4

Here's a taster:

When radioactive particles collide with neutral atoms are
molecules they may become charged due to electrons being
knocked out of their structure.
This alters their structure leaving them as charged particles called
Alpha and beta radiation are therefore known as ionising radiation
and can damage molecules in healthy cells which results in the
death of the cell.…read more

Page 5

Preview of page 5

Here's a taster:

The fusion of two heavy forms of hydrogen (deuterium and tritium)
is an example of nuclear fusion. When they are forced together,
the deuterium and tritium nuclei fuse together to form a new
helium atom and an unchanged neutron.
Nuclear Fission
Nuclear fission is the splitting of an atomic nucleus.
There are two fissionable substances in common use in nuclear
reactors, uranium 235 and plutonium 239.
For fission to occur, uranium 235 or plutonium 239 nucleus must
first absorb a neutron.…read more

Page 6

Preview of page 6

Here's a taster:

A uranium atom must first absorb a neutron before fission can
take place.
When a neutron collides with a very large nucleus, the nucleus
splits up into two smaller nuclei (e.g. barium and krypton)
This releases energy and new neutrons.
The new atoms formed (e.g. barium and krypton) are radioactive.…read more

Page 7

Preview of page 7

Here's a taster:

The Plum Pudding and Nuclear Model
Higher Tier students need to be able to explain how the
Rutherford and Marsden scattering experiment led to the "plum
pudding" Model of the atom being replaced by the nuclear model.…read more

Page 8

Preview of page 8


No comments have yet been made

Similar Physics resources:

See all Physics resources »See all resources »