P2 AQA Revision Notes

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Physics 2 Revision
DistanceTime Graphs
The slope on a distancetime graph represents speed
Speed = distance
The unit for velocity is ms1
Velocity and acceleration
Velocity is speed in a given direction
The acceleration of an object is its change of velocity per second.
Acceleration = change in velocity
Time taken
o Negative acceleration
o Any situation when an object slows down
More about velocitytime graphs
The slope of a the line on a velocitytime graph represents acceleration
When the section of the graph for constant velocity is flat. The line's slope is zero so the acceleration in
this section is also zero.
The line on a graph goes up because the velocity increases with time
The line is straight because the increase in velocity is the same with each second ­ the acceleration was
Using Graphs
For a moving object with a changing speed ­ distancetime graph is not a straight line.
o The slope of the graph increases gradually ­ the object's speed must have increased gradually
To find the distance travelled from a graph ­ area under a velocitytime graph
Speeding up and Slowing down
Forces between objects
Two objects that push or pull on each other exert equal and opposite forces on each other.
Friction acts where an object is in contact with the ground.
Resultant Force
We can work out the effect of the forces on an object by replacing them with a single force ­ resultant
force ­ this force has the same effect as all the other forces acting on it.

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Object at start Resultant force Effect on the object
1 At rest Zero Stays at rest
2 Moving Zero Velocity stays the same
3 Moving Nonzero in the same direction as the direction of motion Accelerates
of the object
4 Moving Nonzero in the opposite direction to the direction of the Decelerates
motion of the object
When the resultant force on an object is zero
o The object is stationary
o The object continues to move at the same speed and in the same direction…read more

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When an object is moved by a force work is done on the object by a force. The force transfers some
energy to the object.…read more

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Electrical Charges
Charging by friction ­ some insulators become charged by rubbing them with a dry cloth
o Rubbing a polythene rod with a dry cloth makes the rod become negatively charged
o Rubbing a Perspex rod with a dry cloth makes the rod become positively charged.…read more

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Current Electricity
Electric Circuits
Symbols on Pg 170
Components in series have the same current going through them
The current through a resistor at constant temperature is directly proportional to the potential difference
across the resistor
More currentpotential difference graphs
See graphs on Pg 174
Series Circuits
The same current passes through components in series with each other
The total potential difference of the voltage supply in a series circuit is shared between the components
The total resistance of components in series is…read more

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The case is made of an electrical insulator
o The inside of the case is shaped so that none of the wires come into contact with each other and
that the pins don't touch either
The plug contains a fuse between the live pin and wire
o The fuse melts if too much current passes through it
Copper is used for wires because it is a good conductor
The rating of the fuse is the maximum amount of current that can pass through it…read more

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When an unstable nucleus emits a beta particle the atomic number goes up by 1 but the mass
stays the same.…read more

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Nuclear Fusion
Two nuclei release energy when they are fused together to form one larger nucleus
The two nuclei are positively charged so they will repel each other
o If they are moving fast enough they can fuse together
The process requires a lot of energy but when they are fused together they release more energy
The fusion reactor needs to be heated to an extremely high temperature before fusion can take place
In a fusion reactor:
o The plasma is heated by passing a…read more


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