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P2 Physics

Speed and Velocity
A time-distance graph plots distance travelled against the time taken
A slope on a time-distance graph represents speed, the steeper the slope the
greater the speed
o Speed = distance ÷ time
o Distance = speed x time
o Time = distance ÷ speed

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The stopping distance is of a vehicle is the distance travelled by the object during the
thinking distance and the breaking distance
The thinking distance is increased if the driver is under the influence of alcohol or
drugs and the braking distance is increased if the road is wet or…

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When a force acts on a moving object its momentum changes
Force = change in momentum ÷ time taken
If you increase the time taken then the force exerted decreases e.g. crumple zones
and airbags

Static Electricity
If two insulating materials rub against each other, electrons are rubbed off one…

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Static electricity can be dangerous as well as being very useful
The filler pipes on road tankers that are used to pump fuel into storage tanks are
earthed to prevent them becoming charged because a spark could cause an
Another way to prevent the dangers of electrostatics is by…

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o Power = current x potential difference
The potential difference of the mains supply is 230 volts so the equation above can
be used to work out what fuse is needed
In a resistor the electrical energy is transferred to heat, the amount of energy that's
transformed can be worked…

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In a parallel circuit the current varies with resistance between each

Mains electricity
Cells (and battery's) supply a current which only flows in one direction, this is called a
direct current or DC, however if the current from the mains supply passes in one
direction then reverses and passes…

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Atoms of the same element can also have a different number of neutrons in which
case it is an isotope, only the neutron number and the electron number can change
or it becomes a different element
An alpha particle consists of two protons and two neutrons, this means that when…

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Nuclear fusion is the process of two atomic nuclei joining to form one single, larger
nucleus, during this process energy is released (this is the process in which energy is
released as stars)
The problems with nuclear fusion are the nuclei approaching each other will repel
each other due to…


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