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P2.2 The kinetic energy of objects speeding up or slowing down

P2.2.1 Forces and Energy
When a force causes an object to move through a distance work is done.

W=F x d
W is the work done in joules: J
F is the force applied in Newton: N
d is…

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P2.2 The kinetic energy of objects speeding up or slowing down


The potential difference (voltage) between two points in an electric circuit is the work done (energy
transferred) per coulomb of charge that passes between the points.
V = W/Q
V is the potential difference in volts, V
W is…

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P2.2 The kinetic energy of objects speeding up or slowing down

Cells and batteries supply current that always passes in the same direction. This is called direct current
(d.c.). An alternating current (a.c.) is one that is constantly changing direction. Mains electricity is an a.c.
supply. In the UK it…

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P2.2 The kinetic energy of objects speeding up or slowing down

The basic structure of an atom is a small central nucleus composed of protons and neutrons surrounded
by electrons. Atoms may lose or gain electrons to form charged particles called ions. The
atoms of an element always have the…

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