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Darker skin absorbs Ultra ­ Violet which reduces the
chance of skin cancer and burning
To reduce the chances sun cream can be used, it has a
SPF ( Sun protection factor ) number
A SPF of 8 allows you to stay in the sun 8 X longer
Most of the sun's Ultra ­ Violet is absorbed by the ozone
layer, however this can be destroyed by CFC ( Chloro ­
fluro hydrocarbons ) from aerial cans and fridges
Climate change
The Earth maintains a…read more

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Heating up balanced with cooling down
Several factors that can affect this balance
Dust from volcanoes reflects the sun rays causing global
Dust from factories reflects Infra ­ Red back to the
Earth causing slight warming
Carbon dioxide ( CO ) is the main cause of global warming
and is produced by burning fossil fuels and deforestation
( cutting down trees ­ rainforest etc )…read more

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The Earth's structure
Earthquakes tell scientist about the structure of the
During earthquakes different waves are emitted which can
be detected by a seismometer
An Earthquake happens when rocks break suddenly at a
Shock waves pass through the Earth and travel around its
It is the surface waves that cause the damage to houses
and other structures
We detect Earthquakes using a seismometer…read more

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A heavy weight with a pen attached is suspended above a
rotating drum
There is paper on the drum
The base is bolted to solid rock
During an Earthquake the base moves but the pen stays
A trace is drawn on the paper
The first waves from an Earthquake are called P waves ( P
­ Primary and P ­ Push )
These are longitude waves…read more

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P Waves can pass through solids and liquids
S waves ( S ­ Secondary and S ­ Shake ) are transverse
waves and can only pass through solids
The seismograph only shows those waves
The reading is called a seismogram
The energy of an Earthquake is measured on the Richter
Each point on the scale means a increase by a factor
A scale of 5 is ten times more powerful than a scale of 4…read more

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P and S waves
Seismologists can detect the waves at other parts on the
Earth's crust…read more

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The Earths structure
From the detection of the S and P waves scientists have
come up with a theory for the structure of the Earth…read more


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