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Dangerous waves

The sun emits Ultra ­ Violet which can penetrate the skin
damaging living cells underneath, causing cancer
The lighter the skin the more damage is likely

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Darker skin absorbs Ultra ­ Violet which reduces the
chance of skin cancer and burning

To reduce the chances sun cream can be used, it has a
SPF ( Sun protection factor ) number
A SPF of 8 allows you to stay in the sun 8 X longer

Most of…

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Heating up balanced with cooling down




Several factors that can affect this balance

Dust from volcanoes reflects the sun rays causing global
cooling
Dust from factories reflects Infra ­ Red back to the
Earth causing slight warming
Carbon dioxide ( CO ) is the main cause of global warming
and…

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The Earth's structure

Earthquakes tell scientist about the structure of the
Earth
During earthquakes different waves are emitted which can
be detected by a seismometer

An Earthquake happens when rocks break suddenly at a
fault
Shock waves pass through the Earth and travel around its
surface
It is the surface…

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Seismometers

A heavy weight with a pen attached is suspended above a
rotating drum
There is paper on the drum
The base is bolted to solid rock
During an Earthquake the base moves but the pen stays
still
A trace is drawn on the paper




The first waves from an…

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P Waves can pass through solids and liquids
S waves ( S ­ Secondary and S ­ Shake ) are transverse
waves and can only pass through solids
The seismograph only shows those waves

The reading is called a seismogram
The energy of an Earthquake is measured on the Richter…

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P and S waves

Seismologists can detect the waves at other parts on the
Earth's crust

Page 8

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The Earths structure

From the detection of the S and P waves scientists have
come up with a theory for the structure of the Earth

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