P1a Revision With Test

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1.1 Thermal Radiation
Thermal or heat radiation is the transfer of energy by infra-red waves.
Thermal radiation is energy transfer by electromagnetic waves.
All objects emit thermal radiation.
The hotter an object, the more thermal radiation it emits.
Heat radiation can travel through a vacuum.
1.2 Surfaces and Radiation
Dark, matt surfaces are better emitters of thermal radiation than light, shiny
Dark, matt surfaces are better absorbers of thermal radiation than light, shiny
1.3 Conduction
Conduction mainly occurs in solids. Most liquids and gases are poor conductors.
Conduction in a metal is due mainly to free electrons transferring energy inside the
The particles gain kinetic energy and vibrate more; this is then passed onto
neighbouring particles etc.
When metals are heated free electrons gain kinetic energy and move through the
metal and transfer energy by colliding with other particles.
Non-metals are poor conductors because they do not have free electrons.
Fibreglass is a good insulator because they contain pockets of trapped air.
1.4 Convection
Polymers can be designed with specific properties by choosing different monomers and
by changing the conditions used to make them
1.5 Heat Transfer by Design
A radiator has a large surface area so heat can be lost easily.
Small objects lose heat more easily than large objects.
Heat loss from a building can be reduced by using:
Aluminium foil behind radiators.
Cavity wall insulation.
Double glazing.
Loft insulation.
Using shiny, light surfaces which are poor emitters of heat.
Trapping air in small pockets.
To maximise heat loss to keep things cool we can use:
Good conductors.
Paint objects dull black.
Have air flow around them maximised.

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1) Name 3 types of heat transfer.
2) Which type of heat transfer occurs mainly in solids?
3) How are convection currents set up in fluids?
4) Describe the process of heat transfer through a metal.…read more

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Conservation of Energy
Energy can be transferred from one place to another.
The total amount of energy is always the same (this is the conservation of energy).
E.G. when an object falls, GP (gravitational potential energy) is transformed into
kinetic energy.
2.3 Useful Energy
Useful energy is energy in the place we want it and in the form we need it.
Wasted energy is energy that is not useful energy.…read more

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Making objects move (using an electric motor)
Creating sounds and visual images.
2.6 Electrical Power
The power of a device is the rate at which it transforms energy.
The power of a device is measured in Watts (W)
1 Kilowatt (kW) = 1000 Watts.
2.7 Using electrical Energy
A Kilowatt-hour (kWh) is the amount of energy transferred by a kilowatt device when
used for one hour.
2.8 The National Grid
A network of cables and transformers that connect power stations to homes and other
buildings.…read more

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Water heated Steam turns the turbine Rotates the generators
Heat comes from burning a fuel such as a fossil fuel; or hot gases drive the turbine
Uranium or Plutonium is used in a nuclear power station
Fission happens which produces a lot of heat turning the water into steam.
More energy is released per kilogram from uranium than fossil fuels.
2.10 Energy from Wind and Water
A wind turbine is an electricity generator on top of a tall tower.…read more

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Gas power stations can be Production of CO2, a greenhouse
started up quickly to deal with gas.
sudden demand. Production of SO2, causing acid
Nuclear No production of polluting gases. Non-renewable.
Reliable. Produces nuclear waste, which is
difficult to dispose of safely.
Risk of big accident, such as
Wind Renewable. Requires many large turbines.
Free Unsightly and noisy.
No production of polluting gases. Not reliable, the wind does not
always blow.
Falling Renewable. Only work in wet and hilly areas.…read more

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Why is geothermal energy economically unviable in most places?
8) What colour are solar heating panels usually painted?…read more


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