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P1A: Energy and Energy Resources
P1a 1 Heat Transfer
-All metals are good conductors of heat/electricity: they have lots of free electrons which transfer
energy from hotter side of the metal to the cooler part
-Atoms vibrate and the vibration passes along to other atoms as they bump…

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Saving Energy

Part of Loss mechanism % Method to reduce loss
house loss

Ceiling/Roof Conduction: tiles/ceiling 30 Loft insulation-reduces
Convection: Warm air rises to convection currents
ceilings/roof Conduction also reduced as
trapped air good insulator

Windows Conduction: glass 20 Double glazing, curtains

Floor Conduction 5 Carpets

Draughts Convection currents 20…

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A rollercoaster gains GPE as it climbs. This is then lost when it race downwards and changes to kinetic
energy and sound

GPE KE + sound + thermal energy

As a ball bounces there is a continuous transfer of energy between GPE and KE. Each time the ball
bounces it…

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Electric kettle Thermal energy of water Thermal energy of kettle

Hairdryer Kinetic energy of air driven by fan Sound of motor
Thermal energy of air flowing past heater Thermal energy of hairdryer

Electric motor Kinetic energy of object driven by motor Thermal and sound energy of mot
Potential energy of…

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Wouldn't spoil landscape or affect people's High above the ground so unlikely to affect
health people
Less expensive and easier to repair
Easier to place as cables are hard to bury

P1a: 4 Generating Electricity
-Generated in power stations
-In coal or oil powered power satins, the burning fuel heats…

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More energy produced per kg of uranium fuel Nuclear reactors are normally safe but an explosion
than from fossil fuel can release radioactive material over a wide area.
Damage lasts for years

2. Renewable energy sources

Advantages Disadvantages
Resources never run out Turbines are unsightly and noisy
No radioactive waste…

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Geothermal Energy Water heated by rocks Free energy Only possible where there are
(Earth) inside ground, due to Available all the time as hot rocks near surface so few
energy released by sun's energy not needed areas suitable
radioactive substances Cheap once built Expensive to build
inside the Earth No…

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Electromagnetic Spectrum
-All transverse waves
-All travel at a speed of 300 million m/s
-Can travel through a vacuum
-The shorter the wavelength and the higher the frequency the more dangerous they are
-Some waves are reflected depending on wavelength/type of surface
-Some or all waves are absorbed by a…

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Radio-waves and the Ionosphere
Radio waves less than 30 MHz reflected back into the atmosphere
However ionosphere stronger in summer than in winter so cannot hear distant radio stations

Type of Radiation Uses Dangers

Radio Waves Communication

Microwaves Satellite communications Internal tissue heating as water
Cooking food molecules resonate…

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-Isotope is an atom which has the same number of protons and electrons but a different number of
neutrons: same atomic number but a different mass number
-Most atoms have 3 isotopes but only ½ are stable

Alpha Radiation
Poor penetrating-stopped by paper
-Heavy and large
- Highly ionising as…




THANKZ, great resources



no hepkp

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