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Oxidation States
We use these to see what has been oxidised
and what has been reduced in a reaction
Remember OIL RIG:
Oxidation
Is
Loss of electrons
Reduction
Is
Gain of electrons…read more

Slide 3

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Rules for finding Oxidation
States
There are rules which you need to know when
finding out oxidation states, these are as
follows:
1. Uncombined elements have an oxidation
state of zero e.g O2
2. Some elements always have the same
oxidation states, some can change (see next
slide)
3. The sum of all the oxidation states in a
compound =0
4. The sum of the oxidation states in a complex
ion e.g NH4+ Is the charge on the ion…read more

Slide 4

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Usual Oxidation States of
Elements
Element Oxidation State Example
Hydrogen, H +1 except in metal HCl
hydrides, e.g NaH where it'
s -1
Group 1 +1 NaCl
Group 2 +2 CaCl2
Aluminum, Al +3 AlCl3
Oxygen, O -2 except in peroxides Na2O
when it's -1 and in
compounds with OF2,
where it's +2
Flourine, F -1 NaF
Chlorine, Cl -1 except in compounds NaCl
with F and O, where it can
be various…read more

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Examples
PCl
-1 *5
5=
Cl = -1 P = +5
-5
SO4
-2 *2-
4= -8 + +6 =
O = -2
-8 +2…read more

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