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Topic 1: Trends in the ownership and control of the media

Key words:

Horizontal integration:
Known as cross-media ownership ­ the bigger media companies often own a diverse range
of media. For example News Corp owns newspapers, magazines, book publishers and TV
(Fox TV in US).

Vertical integration:
Some media…

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Concentration of ownership:
Bagdikian points out that in 1983, 50 corporations controlled the vast majority of all news
media in the USA, by 2004 media ownership was concentrated in 7 corporations.

While access to satellite, cable and digital TV in the UK is generally controlled by two
companies ­ News…

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Marxism (A.K.A. Instrumental or Manipulative Marxism)

Main points;
Owners of the media do interfere with media content
They spread ideologies of their dominant class power
Media managers have little choice
Audiences are passive robots favouring dominant ideology
Journalists censor their reports to assure it meets ruling class views and to…

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Culture and the mass media spread the dominant ideology
Editors and journalists are forced to do this by their owners as it's what their belief is
Media owners don't have control, editors/journalists add content if they share similar
The audience do not receive a wide range of information


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