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Hofling
· Studied nurses in a hospital who were given
instructions over the phone from a unknown doctor
who told them to give 20milligrams of astroten to a
patient. This is dangerous as 20milligrams is twice the
dose that should be given.
· Found that 95% of nurses gave this drug to the
patient and obeyed the doctor despite not knowing
who the doctor was
· This shows that obedience occurs in real life and
supports Milgram's findings so his results can be
generalised to real life.…read more

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Rank and Jacobsen
· Studied nurses in a hospital that were told over the
phone to give valium at 3 times the recommended
level to patients. The doctor on the phone gave the
name of a real doctor and the nurses were able to
talk to other nurses before they gave the drug.
· Found that only 2 out of 18 nurses prepared the
medication showing low levels of obedience
· This shows that obedience is effected by situational
factors and can exist in real life…read more

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Bickman
· Dressed up in 3 outfits (sports jacket and tie,
milkman and guard) on 3 separate occasions and asked
various people to do things like pick up litter or give a
person a coin for the parking meter.
· Found that participants obeyed the most when he was
dressed as a guard
· This shows that obedience is most likely to occur if
the person has legitimate authority. When people
appear to have authority others are more likely to
obey their orders.…read more

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