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Origins and Development
As an ideological and political doctrine, multiculturalism started rising in popularity in
conjunction with the black consciousness movements of the 1960s, particularly in the USA.
While these movements had their own origins in the `back to Africa' movement started
earlier in the century, inspired by figures…

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spike in the number of refugees due to the political instability and conflict that followed the
collapse of the USSR which sparked fighting across the in places such as IndoChina,
Rwanda, Bangladesh and Algeria and secondly because of the intensified pressures for a
global, mobile workforce due to the spread…

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Politics of recognition
In common with socialists and feminists, multiculturalists are characterised by a need and
desire to advance the social positions of what they deem to be marginalised groups,
primarily through significant changes to political institutions and their practices. However,
as opposed to previous doctrines advocating social advancement,…

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sense of culturalism, or cultural nationalism which largely influenced traditional
German nationalism initially advocated by the philosopher Herder, however since
multiculturalism's spread as a political creed cultural politics has been reassessed
and shaped by primarily two aspects: communitarianism and identity politics.
First developed as a philosophical attack against the universalism…

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shared values. This would include Native Americans, Inuits in Canada, the New
Zealand Maoris and the aboriginal people of Australia. The most practical and
widespread way to legislate for selfgovernment rights is generally accepted to
be a form of devolution, such as the Scottish Parliament and the Welsh &

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in Denmark in 2006. Given such developments, some states, such as the UK,
have adopted laws explicitly banning religious hatred.
Finally, minority rights are a tool to tackle social injustice such the
underrepresentation of minorities in certain aspects of public life like higher
education. This is done in the United…

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Surprisingly for some, there can be drawn a lot of common ground between nationalism and
multiculturalism, as they both place large amounts of emphasis on the ability for us to express
our adherence to our cultural identity in the society that we live as a key aspect of what…

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this position by arguing that given the liberal commitment to the importance of the
individual a liberal society must ensure that the necessary conditions for a society in
which anyone can establish the good life or `the right' as they see it, and that as liberals
they cannot prescribe an…

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framework harmoniously. For John Gray, this showed that pluralism was in actual
fact a postliberal stance as liberalism is no longer seen as the doctrine that could
claim a monopoly of legitimacy.
Bhikhu Parekh advanced an alternative form of pluralism. In this view human identity
is formed in a similar…

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cosmopolitan multiculturalists, cultural diversity is undeniably a fact of political &
everyday life. Instead of being a cultural mosaic as pluralists would imagine due to
the fluid nature of culture society would ultimately be a cultural `melting pot', where
the interaction of each different cultural groups would lead to the…




really good resource, I was impressed how detailed it was ☺️ xox

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