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Osmosis and animal cells
When animal cells are placed in solutions with water potentials higher or
lower than the water potential of the cytoplasm inside the cells.

Higher water potential outside:
Cell swells, bursts and dies

Equal water potential outside and inside:
No change

Low water potential outside:
Cell shrinks…

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Active Transport

Happens when a cell needs to take up, or get rid of, substances whose
concentration gradient is in the `wrong' direction (usually sodium ions
and potassium ions)
Requires energy input from the cell Active Transport
Carried out by transporter proteins, working with ATP
ATP used to change the…

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Cell Division and Cellular Organisation
The Cell Cycle

You begin your life as a single cell, this is called a zygote (a cell that
forms when 2 gametes fuse)
After it was formed the zygote divides to form two cells, which then
divide to form four cells
The division continued…

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Significance of mitosis

Mitosis occurs in many parts of the body
Mitosis is the type of cell division that occurs in a developing embryo
and throughout the growth of a human being
Mitosis also comes into play when part of the body is damaged and
needs repair
Mitosis is also…

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Xylem vessels
Thick, strong cell walls containing cellulose and lignin help support a
Pits (thin sections) allow some lateral water movement
Xylem vessels are dead and have no cytoplasm, so all the space inside
can be used to transport water and materials
Xylem vessels join end to end to…

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System: Collection of organs with particular functions
Exchange Surfaces

Your body needs constant supplies of oxygen and nutrients and need to
get rid of waste materials such as CO2
As an organism gets bigger, both its surface area and its volume
A large organism must find ways of…

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Smooth muscle is found in the walls of the trachea, bronchi and
bronchioles. It contracts slowly and steadily and can remain contracted
for long periods of time. It is an involuntary muscle.
Elastic Fibres are found in the walls of the airways. Important around the
alveoli, when you breathe in,…


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