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Organic Nitrogen Compounds ­ Answers

1. Amines contain the group NR3, . There are three types of amine:
Primary amine: Only one carbon atom bonded to the nitrogen atom and, therefore, has an ­NH2 group.
Ammonia can be regarded as the simplest amine. E.g. methylamine, CH3CH2.
Secondary amine: Two carbon…

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10. Amines have a lone pair on the N atom, so they can act as nucleophiles:
Reactions with halogenoalkanes: The H's on the N can be successively replaced by the R group from the
halogenoalkanes, right through to quaternary ammonium salts. This complicates the reaction, because any
amine produced in…

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16. The pulling of the lone pair of electrons from the nitrogen atom by the benzene ring makes the nitrogen atom
less - and, therefore, less effective as a base and as a nucleophile:
Phenylamine as a base: Phenylamine is a weak base, so it reacts reversibly with water

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22. Physical properties of amides:
Melting points: Amides have high melting points for their size, because they can form H bonds.
The hydrogen atoms in the ­NH2 group are sufficiently positive to form a hydrogen bond with a
lone pair on the oxygen atom of another molecule.
Solubility: Apart from…

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soluble because of the many H bonds that can form between the ­OH groups that occur on alternate carbon
atoms and water molecules.
33. Amino acid molecules contain at least one ­NH2 group and one ­COOH group. Amino acids have the general

Those amino acids that are the building…

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42. Nitriles contain the -C N group. They used to be called cyanides. The names of nitriles depend on the longest
carbon chain, including the carbon of the CN group. Some nitriles contain another group as well as ­CN.
43. Simple nitriles are prepared by the reaction between a halogenoalkane…


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