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Electrophilic addition
· Alkene to halogenoalkane (or alcohol)
· Reagents: Alkenes with halogens,
hydrogen halides (or water)
· Markovnikov's rule
· Most stable carbocation will be the one
with most alkyl groups around C+…read more

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Electrophilic Addition…read more

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Free Radical Substitution
· Alkane to halogenoalkane
· Reagents: Alkanes with halogens
· Conditions: UV light
· Homolytic fission
· Free radical = species with unpaired electron
· Three stages:
­ Initiation
­ Propagation
­ Termination
· Can also happen with methyl benzene ­ side
chain substitution…read more

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Summary: Free radical substitution
mechanism
ultra-violet
Cl Cl Cl Cl initiation step
H3C H Cl H3C H Cl two
propagation
H3C Cl Cl H3C Cl Cl steps
H3C Cl H3C Cl termination step
minor
H3C CH3 H3C CH3
termination step…read more

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Electrophilic Substitution
· Benzene ring to substituted benzene ring
· Reagents: Benzene & electrophile
· Conditions: For halogenation and
alkylation - halogen carrier catalyst to
generate electrophile
· Electrophile: positive ion, or the slightly
positive end of a polar molecule…read more

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