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Organic Chemistry- Isomerism
The isomers start with, structural isomers with a different arrangement of the carbon skeleton,
different positions of functional groups and different functional groups.
Stereoisomers are arranged
differently in space, so there is e/z isomerism where there is no rotation around the double bond, z
(cis) have similar groups on the same side, e (trans) have similar groups diagonally opposite one
There is also optical isomers which are called enantiomers and are mirror images of one
another and cannot be superimposed on one another. They are optically active and can rotate
plane-polarised light, one rotates it in a clockwise directon, and one in an anti-clockwise direction.
When they are in the same solution together and in equal concentrations they are called racemic and
no optical activity occurs.
They have two different reaction mechenisms.
This reaction produces a racemic mixture .
This produces one enantiomer.
Aldehydes and Ketones
This is dependant on a C=O bond where in ketones it is in the middle of the carbon chain (their names
end in one) and in aldehydes it is at the end of a carbon chain (their names end in al)
They cannot form hydrogen bonds with themselves, but can form them with water.
The carbonyls will react with hydrogen cyanide in nucleophilic addition.
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The hydrogen cyanide is a weak acid and dissociates in water to form H+ and CN-. The hydrogen
cyanide is a very toxic gas and is mixed with potassium cyanide to reduce the risk. The molecule
formed also is an enantiomer and when complete will produce a racemic mixture to the CN-
nucleophile being able to attack the molecule from either side.…read more
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Oxidation of alcohols and aldehydes with acidified potassium dichromate by reflux creates carboxylic
Hydrolysis of nitriles forms carboxylic acids by refluxing the nitrile with dilute hydrochloric acid and
then distil of the carboxylic acid.
Carboxylic acids react with alkalis and carbonates to form salts. CH3COOH + NaOH->CH3COO-Na+
+H20. With carbonates or hydrogen carbonates, 2CH3COOH + NA2CO3 -> 2CHH3COOO-NA+ +H2O
+CO2, CH3COOH +NAHCO3 ->CH3COOO-NA+ +H2O +CO2.…read more