Organic Chemistry Revision Notes

A PDF file of my revision notes for organic chemistry

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  • Created on: 01-11-12 10:17
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Organic Chemistry
Alkanes and alkenes
Alkane Formula Structural Alkene Formula Structural
CnH2n+2 formula CnH2n formula
Methane CH4 Ethene C 2H 4
Ethane C 2H 6 Propene C 3H 6
Propane C 3H 8 Butene C 4H 8
Butane C4H10 -Saturated: have as many bonds with hydrogen as
possible (alkanes), so they are quite unreactive apart
from when they combust (react with oxygen)
-The less carbons, the lower the boiling point as less
energy is needed to break apart the molecules
-The less carbons, the less viscous and the easier to
- Homologous series: a family of compounds with similar properties and bonding and which follow a
general formula. They follow trends (e.g. Boiling point increases down group)
- Hydrocarbon: a compound consisting only of hydrogen and carbon
Fractional distillation
- Crude oil is made up of hydrocarbons and is a fossil fuel (like coal and natural gas)
- These are separated by fractional distillation: a tower is heated and the fractions with the lowest
boiling points are collected at the top (where its coolest) and the fractions with the highest boiling
points are immediately tapped off at the
bottom in liquid form Fraction Use
- Incomplete combustion (combustion
when there is not enough oxygen) can Refinery gases Heating and cooking
lead to carbon monoxide being formed.
Gasoline Car fuel
Carbon monoxide is lethal as it bonds
irreversibly with the haemoglobin which Kerosene Jet fuel
carry oxygen around the body, and so
reduce your bodys oxygen carrying Diesel Fuel in diesel engines
- In car engines, nitrogen is combusted to Fuel oil Ships boilers and industrial
form nitrogen oxide heating
- Fractional distillation produces less
short-chain molecules than required Bitumen Making roads
and more long-chain ones
Naptha Chemicals
Lubricating Lubricants, waxes, polishes

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Organic Chemistry
This is the breaking down of long-chain alkane fractions into shorter-chained alkenes and alkanes. A
catalyst of either silica (silicon dioxide) or alumina (aluminium dioxide) is needed.…read more

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Organic Chemistry
- When alkenes are heated to about 200ºC and put under a high pressure of 2000atm, it reacts with
itself (e.g.…read more


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