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Organic Chemistry
Alkanes and alkenes
Alkane Formula Structural Alkene Formula Structural
CnH2n+2 formula CnH2n formula

Methane CH4 Ethene C 2H 4




Ethane C 2H 6 Propene C 3H 6




Propane C 3H 8 Butene C 4H 8




Butane C4H10 -Saturated: have as many bonds with hydrogen as
possible (alkanes), so…

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Organic Chemistry
Cracking
This is the breaking down of long-chain alkane fractions into shorter-chained alkenes and alkanes. A
catalyst of either silica (silicon dioxide) or alumina (aluminium dioxide) is needed. It is carried out at
about 600ºC or 700ºC

Reactions with alkanes and alkenes
Combustion reactions
- Alkanes: alkane +…

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Organic Chemistry
Polymers
- When alkenes are heated to about 200ºC and put under a high pressure of 2000atm, it reacts with
itself (e.g. Ethene polyethene)
- This is called polymerisation
- It can be shown like this (though brackets not needed around monomer):

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