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7.1 Organic compounds and their reactions
(a) write displayed, shortened and skeletal structural formulae of simple alkanes, alkenes,
halogenoalkanes, primary alcohols and carboxylic acids given their systematic names,
and vice versa

In Organic chemistry a molecular formula may represent more than one organic compound as
there may be different Isomers:…

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(b) describe the effect of increasing hydrocarbon chain length and of the above functional
groups on physical properties, melting and boiling temperature and solubility

Hydrocarbon chain gets longer >>>
boiling and melting points increase due to increasing numbers of electrons increasing the strength of
van der Waals forces and more…

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(e) derive empirical formulae from elemental composition data and use such results,
together with additional data, to deduce molecular formulae

(f) identify reactants as electrophilic, nucleophilic or radical in type, explain the basis of
this classification, and give examples of each

Free radicals: species with an unpaired electron

A double…

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Hydrolysis would normally require an acid or catalyst.

(h) describe the total oxidation of primary alcohols, RCH2OH, to carboxylic acids,
RCOOH. (Knowledge of the properties of aldehydes is not, at this stage, required)

Generally a solution of Sodium dichromate ( VI) in sulphuric acid is required
Condensed under reflux.

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