Organic Chemistry: Nomenclature and reactions

topic 7.1 IUAPC nomenclature and reactions

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  • Created on: 08-05-11 20:54
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7.1 Organic compounds and their reactions
(a) write displayed, shortened and skeletal structural formulae of simple alkanes, alkenes,
halogenoalkanes, primary alcohols and carboxylic acids given their systematic names,
and vice versa
In Organic chemistry a molecular formula may represent more than one organic compound as
there may be different Isomers: molecules with the same molecular formula but different
structural formula.
Because of this systemic nomenclature is now in place.
To use this we use the following rules:
To Summarise:
Look for the longest continuous carbon chain.
Base the name around the straight chain alkane with the same numbers of
carbons.
Look for the shorter carbon branches and name them e.g. methyl.
State the number of identical branches by adding di/ tri/ tetra.
Number the positions starting from the end that will use the lowest
numbers possible.
Keep alphabetical.
Homologous series Functional group Suffix/prefix
alkane cccc ane
alkenes C=C ene
alcohols OH ol
Carboxylic acids COOH oic acid
halogenoalkanes CH2X where x = halogen Fluoro, chloro,bromo, iodo
atom
ketones CO one
esters COOR where R=alkyl group oate

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Hydrocarbon chain gets longer >>>
boiling and melting points increase due to increasing numbers of electrons increasing the strength of
van der Waals forces and more energy is required to break these.
Solubility decreases since hydrocarbon chains do not form hydrogen bonds.
(c) describe structural isomerism and be able to write down the structural isomers of noncyclic
organic compounds (up to and including C6 homologues) including those of
different chemical class
Structural Isomerism: Compounds with the same molecular formula but with different structural
formulas.…read more

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Free radicals: species with an unpaired electron
A double bond (pi bond) is more electron rich than other parts of the alkene
Nucleophiles: Species which contain a lone pair of electrons.
E.G. OH Cl Br I H20 NH3
They will attack regions of low electron density (usually positive regions) in an organic
molecule.
A double bond (pi bond) is more electron rich than other parts of the alkene. So these
areas are attacked by Electron deficient species ie ELECTROPHILES. e.…read more

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Hydrolysis would normally require an acid or catalyst.
(h) describe the total oxidation of primary alcohols, RCH2OH, to carboxylic acids,
RCOOH. (Knowledge of the properties of aldehydes is not, at this stage, required)
Generally a solution of Sodium dichromate ( VI) in sulphuric acid is required
Condensed under reflux.
heated under reflux
RCH2OH +2[o] >>> RCOOH +H20 where R represents an alkyl group.…read more

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