Organic Chemistry


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Organic chemistry
Study of compounds containing carbon and hydrogen
Carbon forms strong and stable bonds with other C atoms
Electron configuration of C = 1s22s22px12py12pz0 only 2 unpaired electrons but forms 4
bonds because it is energetically favourable for an electron from 2s to be promoted to
Bonding in organic chemistry
4 bonds around a C atom can be:
Four single bonds tetrahedral shape, e.g. methane
Two single bonds and one double bond planar arrangement e.g. ethene, no rotation
about a double bond
One single bond and one triple bond
Two double bonds
Three single bonds and one ionic bond
Families of organic compounds
Homologous series a series of compounds that contain the same functional group and
that have the same general

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Functional group small group of atoms or single halogen atom that gives compounds in
the series particular chemical properties
Functional Name of series Suffix General formula First member
None Alkanes -ane CnH2n+2 Methane CH4
C=C Alkenes -ene CnH2n Ethene H2C=CH2
X where X is a Halogenoalkanes -ane CnH2n+1X Chloromethane
halogen CH3Cl
-OH Alcohols -ol CnH2n+1OH Methanol CH3OH
-C-H Aldehydes -al RCHO R is an Methanol HCHO
=O alkyl group or H
C=O Ketones -one R -C=O Propanone
Where R and R'
are…read more


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