Organic Chemistry

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Organic chemistry
General
Study of compounds containing carbon and hydrogen
Carbon forms strong and stable bonds with other C atoms
Electron configuration of C = 1s22s22px12py12pz0 only 2 unpaired electrons but forms 4
bonds because it is energetically favourable for an electron from 2s to be promoted to
2pz
Bonding in organic chemistry
4 bonds around a C atom can be:
Four single bonds tetrahedral shape, e.g. methane
Two single bonds and one double bond planar arrangement e.g. ethene, no rotation
about a double bond
One single bond and one triple bond
Two double bonds
Three single bonds and one ionic bond
Families of organic compounds
Homologous series a series of compounds that contain the same functional group and
that have the same general

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Functional group small group of atoms or single halogen atom that gives compounds in
the series particular chemical properties
Functional Name of series Suffix General formula First member
group
None Alkanes -ane CnH2n+2 Methane CH4
C=C Alkenes -ene CnH2n Ethene H2C=CH2
X where X is a Halogenoalkanes -ane CnH2n+1X Chloromethane
halogen CH3Cl
-OH Alcohols -ol CnH2n+1OH Methanol CH3OH
-C-H Aldehydes -al RCHO R is an Methanol HCHO
=O alkyl group or H
C=O Ketones -one R -C=O Propanone
R'- CH3COCH3
Where R and R'
are…read more

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