Organic chemistry

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  • Created on: 15-05-14 19:01
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Organic chemistry
- 1ary alcohol= -OH group on a carbon bonded to 1 other carbon; 2ary = -OH group on a carbon
bonded to 2 other carbons; etc
- Less volatile than corresponding hydrocarbons due to H-bonds
- Combustion: Burn with clean, colourless flame: 2CH3OH(l) + 3O2(g) 2CO2(g) + 4H2O(l)
- Reaction with sodium: reacts a bit like water due to -OH group, but produces sodium ethoxide, not
hydroxide- CH3CH2OH + Na CH3CH2O-Na+ + ½H2
- Substitution reactions with hydrogen halides (halogenation):
- -OH group is replaced by a halogen atom
- Fastest with 3ary alcohols (at rtp), slowest with 1ary (requires heating and HSO)
- CH3C(CH3)(OH)CH3 + HCl CH3CCl(CH3)CH3 + HO
- All react rapidly at rtp with PCl5: C3H7OH(l) + PCl5(s) C3H7Cl(l) + POCl3(l) + HCl(g)
- Above reaction is a test for alcohols- steamy fumes of HCl turn moist blue litmus red (HCl
also reacts with ammonia to form white smoke of ammonium chloride)
- Oxidation with potassium dichromate (VI):
- 1ary: aldehyde (blue solution produces dark red precipitate of copper(I) oxide with Benedicts/
Fehlings) produced if products distilled off (to prevent further oxidation)
- 3CH3CH2(OH) + Cr2O72- + 8H+ 3CH3CHO + 2Cr3+ + 7HO
- The above can also be written as: CH3CH2(OH) + [O] CH3CHO + HO
- 1ary: carboxylic acid produced if heated under reflux
- 3CH3CH2(OH) + 2Cr2O72- + 16H+ 3CH3COOH + 4Cr3+ + 11HO
- The above can also be written as: CH3CH2(OH) + 2[O] CH3COOH + HO
- Both parts of reaction together are written like this:
- CH3CH2(OH) + [O] CH3CHO + HO
- 2ary: produce ketones (do not react with Benedicts/Fehlings) when heated
- CH3CH(OH)CH3 + [O] CH3COCH3 + HO
- Dichromate (VI) (Cr2O72-) turns from orange to green as Cr3+ is produced
- 3ary: no reaction as there is no H attached to neighbouring carbon which can be removed
After heating
with dichromate

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Other reactions
- 1ary halogenoalkane with dilute aqueous alkali (e.g.…read more


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