First 477 words of the document:
Many people felt that Germany had received a very harsh deal in the Treaty of Versailles and they
resented the government for signing it and agreeing to its conditions. The Weimar Republic faced
violent uprisings from various groups and devastating economic problems.
The Spartacists a group of left-wing revolutionaries, led by Rosa Luxemburg and Karl
Liebknecht, who wanted a social revolution.
In January 1919 the Spartacists staged an attempted revolution and seized the
headquarters of the government newspaper and telegraph bureau. However, it was not well
prepared and was easily crushed by the Freikorps, (bands of soilders who had formed private
armies who took over the Spartacist headquarters and killed 100 of them, including the
In March 1920, there was a rebellion - the Kapp Putsch - that aimed to set up a new
government as the rebels were angry at them for signing the Treaty of Versailles.The Kapp
Putsch was a direct threat to Weimar's new government.
Wolfgang Kapp, a right-wing journalist, was its leader; assisted by General Luttwitz. On March
13th, 1920, Luttwitz seized Berlin and proclaimed that a new right of centre nationalist
government was being established with Kapp as chancellor.
But Friedrich Ebert, the previous president, called a general strike and ensured that those
who supported Kapp could not move around. This doomed the putsch to failure and Kapp and
Luttwitz fled Berlin on March 17th.
In November 1923, Hitler tried to take advantage of the crisis facing the Weimar government
by instigating a revolution in Munich. In 1923, the Nazi party (which was then just a terrorist
group) had 55,000 members and was stronger than ever before.
In September 1923, the Weimar government had called off the general strike, and every
German nationalist was furious with the government.
Hitler thought he would be helped by important nationalist politicians, Kahr and Lossow, but on
4th October 1923, they called off the rebellion. This was an impossible situation for Hitler, who
had 3,000 storm troopers (known as the SA) ready to fight; he knew he would lose control if he
did not give them something to do.
On the 8th November, Hitler and 600 storm troopers burst into a meeting that Kahr and
Lossow were holding. Hitler forced them to agree to rebel, but then let them go home. The SA
took over the army headquarters and the offices of the local newspaper.
The next day, Hitler and his Nazis went into Munich on what they thought would be a
triumphal march to take power; however Kahr had called in police and army reinforcements
resulting int the death of 16 Nazis. Hitler fled, but was arrested two days later.