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Edelweiss Pirates
This group was created by 12-18 year old boys who had no distinctive political
ideology but were against the Hitler Youth and the lack of freedom. These
boys were located in mainly working class districts such as Dusseldorf, Essen,
etc (mainly West German towns). Many members had long hair and most had
never joined the Hitler Youth or had dropped out of it.…read more

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In 1944, the SS issued a decree of combating on youth gangs which led to
further pirate arrests. In November 1944, leaders were hung publicly to stop
more youths joining.
The Gestapo believed that members engaged in under age sex orgies on
camping trips yet there was no evidence on difference to similar 14-18 year
Swing Movement
This movement was predominantly swing and jazz youth from upper middle
class societies. They had the money to buy stereos, fashionable clothes, etc.…read more

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White Rose Movement
This group consisted of 5 close friends based at the University of Munich
Willi Graf, Christoph Probst, Hans Scholl, Sophie Scholl, Kurt Huber and
Alexander Schmorell.
1942-43, produced 6 pamphlets which were distributed in the dead of
the night (even in Linz where Hitler spend most of his youth).…read more

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Paul Geisler gave a speech to the University of Munich which sparked outrage
amongst students and some were arrested. It led to the first demonstration
against Nazi rule on the streets of Munich since 1933.
The Gestapo arrested Hans and Sophie Scholl who were interrogated for over
20 hours and finally confessed to authorship of the leaflets. At the court
hearing, they both (and Christoph) showed signs of physical beating and were
sentenced to death by guillotine.…read more

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Conservative and Military Resistance against Hitler
General Beck
Chief of the army general staff 1935 ­ 38
Initially welcomed Hitler taking power in 1933
Later grew worried that Hitler's foreign policy would plunge Europe into
another war.
Decided to mount a coup to overthrow Hitler although there was
insufficient support within the military and chamberlain (British PM)
refused to encourage the plan (around time of Munich Agreement)
Dismayed, he resigned in 1938 but later emerged as a key conspirator
against the Nazi regime.…read more

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Claus von Staffenburg
Was the great grandson of a Prussian military hero and rose effortlessly
up the ranks of the German army
Became disillusioned with Hitler's rule during German campaign against
the USSR and due to mass killing of Jews.
He became closely involved with the Beck Goerdeler group
1943 ­ Sent to Tunisia so he was out of the way, his anti-Hitler views had
been tolerated by the leading German general.…read more

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Why did the plan fail?
Staffenburg announced to his staff that Hitler was dead and the coup was
underway. In the first 4 hours, there was a complete news block out
surrounding the attempt on Hitler's life and resulted in confusion in the capital.
A state of martial law was not issued by Olbricht until 3.…read more

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It allowed the Nazis to destroy the network of Conservative and Military
resistance groups.
Many leading German aristocratic families were killed (even ones that had
helped Hitler gain power in 1933) and the remaining figures involved were
arrested by the Gestapo and were sentenced to death (hung on meat hooks
suspended by piano wire).
22nd August 1944 ­ Operation Thunderstorm: arrest of 5,000 former ministers
even though many had nothing to do with the plot.…read more

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Opposition resistance from the Social Democrats, Communists and Industrial
Social Democratic Opposition
193- Organised anti-Nazi demonstrations, voted against enabling act
It was banned and leaders of SPD fled into exile
Quickly established a sophisticated underground organisation to oppose nazi
Red Shock (socialist fringe of party) set up a newspaper called the red shock
troop which appeared every 10 days and had 3,000 members. It suggested
the regime could be overthrown by revolutionary action of German workers.…read more


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