First 600 words of the document:
The word `ontos' means `being.' The Ontological argument thus attempts to prove the
existence of God a priori by focusing on the nature of his existence or being. St. Anslem
(1033-1109) was the Archbishop of Canterbury. His argument was first presented in the form
of a prayer in his book, `Proslogion,' directed at the fool of the Psalm (Psalm 14) who says in
his heart that there is no God.
There are two forms to Anslem's Ontological argument:
1/ God can be defined as `that than which nothing greater can be conceived'
2/ We can all conceive of a perfect being in our minds, however we can also conceive of an
even greater being that exists both in our minds (in intellectu) and in reality (in re)
3/ Beings that exist in both the mind (in intellectu) and reality (in re) are greater than those
that only exist in the mind (in intellectu)
4/ Therefore God must exist both in the mind (in intellectu) and in reality (in re) otherwise
something greater in reality (in re) could be perceived.
It is impossible to conceive of a God not existing (John Hick agreed):
1/ A necessary being is greater than a contingent being since a contingent being depends on
something else for its existence and we can be thought of as not existing
2/ God can be defined as `that than which nothing greater can be conceived' and therefore
God must be a necessary being his existence does not depend on other forms
3/ It is impossible to conceive of a necessary being not existing
4/ Therefore God must necessarily exist
ANALOGY OF A TRIANGLE
The analogy of a triangle can be used to explain Descartes' form of the Ontological argument. A
triangle has predicates (necessary characteristics); for example, all of its internal angles must
add up to 180°. If these predicates are removed the triangle is no longer a triangle. Anslem
said, in the same way, existence is a predicate of God.
Immanuel Kant opposed Descartes' form of the Ontological argument and argued that
existence is not a predicate of perfection.
Adding `and exists' to the end of the word `bachelor' does not change its literal definition
Gaunilo in his book `On Behalf of the Fool' used the analogy of a perfect island to illustrate the
absurdity of the first form of Anslem's Ontological argument. He cited the example in which one
could conceive of `the most perfect island' in their mind. According to Anslem, existence is a part
of perfection; therefore, following Anselm's line of argument, the image of a perfect island that
exists in one's mind must necessarily exist in reality because its existence presupposes its
perfection. If it didn't exist in reality the grottiest island that exists in reality would be better
than the `perfect' island that exists only in the mind.
ANSLEM'S COUNTER ARGUMENT
Anslem's response to Gaunilos's criticism was to maintain that he was not arguing about
contingent beings such as islands, but beings that existed necessarily; `that than which
nothing greater can be conceived.' Islands have no `intrinsic maxim' and can always be
bettered according to John Hick, notations of perfection are subjective. Anslem thus
formulated the second form of his Ontological argument to counter this criticism.