OCR P1 revision notes

Here are some revision notes for P1 in the OCR unit hope you find them useful :)

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  • Created on: 23-03-11 18:42
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Revision notes for P1
P1a Heating houses
1. Energy always flows from a hotter to cooler body causing a hot body to cool
and a cool body to warm
2. Temperature is a measure of "hotness" on a chosen scale, heat is a
measure of energy an absolute scale
3. Temperature can be represented by a range of colours in a thermogram
4. The specific heat capacity of a substance is a measure of the amount of
energy it can hold.
5. Specific heat capacity is the amount of energy needed to increase the
temperature of 1Kg of a substance by 10C (E = mcT)
6. When a substance is being heated there is no increase in temperature while
it is melting or boiling
7. The energy is used to break the intermolecular bonds instead of raising the
8. The specific latent heat of a substance is the amount of energy needed to
melt or boil 1Kg of the substance (E= mL)
9. Different substances have different specific heat capacities and specific
latent heats
P1b Keeping homes warm
1. Metals are good conductors of heat, nonmetals, liquids and gases are poor
conductors of heat
2. Many insulating materials contain trapped air because still air is a good
insulator and also reduces heat loss by convection
3. Curtains, double glazing, cavity wall insulation, reflective foil on the walls,
fibre glass or mineral wool loft insulation and draught proofing are used to
keep houses warm
4. The payback time = cost of insulation
Cost saving per year
5. Efficiency = useful energy output
Total energy input
P1c How insulation works
1. Energy losses can be reduced by minimising heat loss due to conduction,
convection and radiation
2. Conduction is the transfer of kinetic energy between particles ­ reduced by
using insulating materials
3. Convection is the bulk flow of particles caused by changes in density ­
reduced by preventing particles from moving
4. Radiation is energy transfer by waves reduced by reflecting the waves back
e.g in to the room by foil on the wall
5. Unless air is trapped in foam there will still be heat loss by convection in a
cavity wall

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By radiation we mean Infrared radiation
P1d Cooking with waves
1. Hot objects give out more radiation than cold objects
2. Dull black objects give out more radiation than shiny objects
3. If infrared radiation is absorbed by an object it will increase its temperature
because it increases the kinetic energy of its particles
4. Black surfaces are the best absorbers of radiation
5. Microwaves are absorbed by water molecules and increase their
temperature by increasing their kinetic energy
6.…read more

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At angles of incidence less than the critical angle light is refracted and leaves
the surface of glass or Perspex
9. At angles greater than the critical angle light is all reflected inside the
material (Total internal reflection)
10. Optical fibres allow rapid transmission of data using light (e.g in morse code)
P1f Wireless signals
1. Radiation used for communications can be refracted as it passes through air
of different density
2. Wireless technology can be used for radio, mobile phones and laptop
3.…read more

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Earthquakes produce shock waves that cause damage and are detected by
2. Seismic waves travel through the Earth and provide evidence of its structure
3. There are two types of seismic waves primary (P waves) and secondary (S
4. P waves are transverse waves. They travel faster and can pass through
liquids and solids, so they pass through all the layers of the Earth
5. S waves are longitudinal waves. They travel slower and can only pass
through solids.…read more




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