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GCSE OCR History
Germany Depth Study 1918-1945 :
KQ2: How was Hitler able to become
Chancellor in January 1933?…read more

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The Depression
· Wall Street Crash 1929 ­ American banks ask for loans given
to Germany in the Dawes Plan back ­ causes a depression in
Germany too.
· 1932 ­ 6 million people were unemployed.
· Working class people join the Communists, middle class
people join the Nazis who promise a strong government.
· July 1932 ­ 230 Nazis elected to the Reichstag.
· Stresemann died, and his alliance of pro-democracy parties
fell apart.
· The government (led by Bruning) could not get a majority to
pass laws.
· They cut wages and unemployment pay (the worst thing to
do in the situation) using Article 48 to get laws through.
· Bruning was replaced by Schleicher, but things did not
improve.…read more

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Given Power
· November 1932 ­ election, number of Nazis fell.
· President Hindenburg and Papen (advisor) still can't get a
majority to pass laws ­ needed the support of a bigger party.
· Nazis were the biggest party at the time.
· Papen had been replaced with Schleicher ­ he wanted
revenge, so asked Hindenburg to make Hitler Chancellor ­ he
would be Vice Chancellor.
· They offered Hitler the post of Vice Chancellor but he
refused, and demanded Chancellor.
· Hindenburg and Papen took a risk and agreed ­ they thought
they could manipulate Hitler ­ they were wrong.
· January 1933 ­ Hitler becomes Chancellor.…read more

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Democracy to Dictatorship
· Hitler called another election to get a majority.
· Helped by Reichstag Fire of Feb 1933 ­ caused by a Dutch
Communist, Marinus van der Lubbe.
· Conspiracy theory that Nazis started the fire, as so
· Gives Hitler opportunity to arrest Communists, and terrify
German people.
· Gains 288 seats in the election.
· Still not enough for a majority, so bans Communist parties
and joins with Catholic Centre Party ­ promises not to
meddle with Church.…read more

Slide 5

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Democracy to Dictatorship
· Enabling Act 23rd March ­ Reichstag voted itself out of existence ­
allowed Hitler to make laws for 4 years without Reichstag = legal
· April ­ takes over local government and police, sacked anti-Nazi
teachers, set up Gestapo, sent opponents, Jews, Communists,
gypsies, homosexuals, alcoholics and prostitutes to concentration
· May ­ Abolished trade unions.
· July ­ Abolished all other parties ­ only Nazi Party.
· July ­ Hitler orders the SS (elite bodyguard) to murder 400 of the SA
(storm troopers), eliminating rivals within the Nazi Party. Leader,
Ernst Rohm also killed as a threat to Hitler's leadership ­ Night of the
Long Knives.
· August ­ Hindenburg died, Hitler united roles of President and
Chancellor. Army swear an oath of loyalty to Hitler, he becomes
Fuhrer of Germany.…read more

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Benefits of the Nazi Rule
· Economic policies - Autarchy (desire for Germany to be self-
sufficient), re-armament and government work schemes gave
employment, prosperity and security.
· Building autobahns/motorways provided work, helped
transport troops and improved transport.
· Work schemes ­ `Strength through Joy' gave workers free
picnics, theatre tickets and holidays.
· There was law and order in Germany.
· Nuremburg rallies and Nazi ceremonies (e.g. The Fuhrer's
Birthday) excited people.
· Law for the Encouragement of Marriage gave newly weds
250 marks for each child they had. Mother's Cross award (8
children = a gold medal).
· Hitler Youth and League of German Maidens provide children
with fun activities, seen as exciting, way to meet friends and
gain sense of responsibility e.g. wear a uniform.…read more

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