OCR F966/02:The Changing Nature of Warfare Revision

First Pages work on the introduction paragraph, the second section are the notes for each war

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Revision of Everything
Introductions and Opening Out the Question
Alliances
Quality (Strength)
Common Aim
Economic Power
Other Factors e.g. Weapons Technology, Resources
Synoptic element: Tend to become stronger, more complex and longer lasting over the
period
Planning and Preparation/Command and Control/Organisation
Quality
Quantity
Flexibility
Scale, Scope
Technological Advancements
Other factors e.g. Weapons or Resource
20th Century vs. 19th Century
Synoptic element: Tend to plan and prepare more, the scale and scope becomes much larger.
Weapons
Range
Lethality
Re-load
Quality
Production rates and availability (Industrialisation)
Other Factors: Planning and Preparing, Training and Recruitment, Generalship and Transport and
Communication
Synoptic element: Weapons become more lethal and bigger while also becoming more directed
at citizens (V2 Rockets, Atomic Bomb) as war becomes more total due to the Industrial
Revolution.
Generalship
Quality which encompasses; deployment of men, delegation and use of other factors
Flexibility
Planning and Preparing for War/Battle
Dictators vs. Democracy
Other Factors: Resources, Alliances or Transport and Communication
Synoptic Element: Generals move further away from the battlefield and start planning the whole
war whilst the scope increases to allow them to control more armies at once. Whilst they also
face more public pressure.

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Tactics
Quality of the tactics
Flexibility from Generals e.g. Delegation, Change tactics
A General can win a one off battle vs. Long-Term War
Clausewitz vs Jomini in Battles (Points of Concentration, Speed, Surprise and Envelopment)
Other Factors: Strategy, Resources, Weapons
Synoptic Element: Battlefield Tactics remain relatively unchanged over the period but the speed,
scale and scope change because of Industrial revolution.
Strategy
Quality
Use of Resources (Attritional)
Long-Term
Synoptic Element: Strategy becomes more tested over time as wars become more drawn out.…read more

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Synoptic element: Because of the industrial revolution, wars become bigger, more widespread
and more about the technology a state possesses, it leads to more Total War. Napoleonic
depends on quality of men, WW2 depended on Atomic Bomb.
Public Opinion
Official Public Opinion e.g. Votes and Unofficial Public Opinion e.g. Riots
Aggressors vs.…read more

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Percussion Cap
Steamboats (2 weeks from Britain)
Smoothbore vs. Rifled Muskets
Railway from Port (240 Tons a day) (12,000 coats, a month later 9,000 remain)
Industrial advancements (1815-1850's)(Congress of Vienna ­ Balance of Power)
Charge of the Light Brigade
Thin Red Line
Telegram
War Correspondents (William Russell)
Resignation of Earl of Aberdeen
Call up of the Serfs, Slow
Menshikov vs. Campbell
St.Arnaud and Raglan hatred
Russia had 1,000,000 men but due to poor transport and infrastructure couldn't get them to
the battlefield
Quality vs.…read more

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Austro-Prussian ­ 1866
Krumper System vs. Austrian slow mobilisation (Ethnic issues)
General Staff
General Staff vs. Imperial Headquarters
Moltke vs. Napoleon
Moltke vs. Benedek
Dreyse Needle Rifle Vs.…read more

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Russo-Japanese War - 1904-1905
Small country defeats numerically superior
Quality vs. Quantity
Field Telephones
Machine Guns and Trench Warfare
Navy bombarded land troops
Nogi vs. Kuropatkin (Cautious)
Poor Transport and Organisation (Trans-Siberian Railway is a one way system)
Siege of Port Arthur, Mukden
World War One - 1914-1918
Machine guns (Defensive)
Static Warfare
Tanks (importance of them? Unreliable, slow and primitive)
Gas
Combustion Engine (1860) starts to be used effectively e.g. Cars, Tanks, Airplanes
New Types of Gunpowder, TNT(Germany) vs.…read more

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T34 Tanks (1940 they were built, shows potential turning point)
Tanks in WW1 could travel 60 miles and then need tracks changed, now they could travel
900 miles.
Panzer Divisions
V2 Rockets
Stuka Dive Bombers (effect on Land Warfare)
Atomic Bombs
Thompson close combat fighting again
Military Training Act (April 1939)(Trains a small group of men)
National Service Act (Conscriptions)(Women become included)
Weaknesses of Axis Powers (Japan on other side of the world, Italy needed `propping up' by
Germany in North Africa) vs.…read more

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Russia wouldn't give up because of Communism, Fear of Stalin and their Willpower
By end of 1942, 7 Russian armies had been enveloped
Russian Armies which had been enveloped by the Germans provided great Guerrilla Warfare
especially because of the terrain of Russia.
Montgomery, Bradley, Patton all big ego's
Eisenhower who had never been on the frontline before, becoming Commander in Chief of
ALL Allied Operations.…read more

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