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1200 BC : Helen's abduction form Sparta and
1194 ­ 1184 BC : The Trojan War
540 ­ 480 BC : Leonidas, King of Sparta,
500 ­ 449 BC : The Persian Wars
490 BC : Battle of Marathon
480 BC : Battle of Thermopylae
479 BC : Battle of Plataea, Defeat of the Persians
431 ­ 404 BC :Peloponnesian Wars…read more

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The Spartan State
Geographical location ­ in the mountains, defence,
no city walls = confident that they wouldn't be attacked
In he region of Laconia
In the Eurotas Valley
Eurotas Valley:
Valley :- fertile land, plentiful food
Defence :- mountains = natural defence system, only through
narrow passages
Early Sparta ­ Dorian invade from north, conquer
Messenia, force populations into slavery (helots),…read more

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Sparta and the other Greeks
Athenian opinion:
Education ­ too focused on military, boys did not learn enough
classics, criminality should not be encouraged, separation from
parents was wrong
Government ­ open to corruption and bribery, voting system is
fair, unusual no one person in power
Women ­ women should not be treated equally, too much
responsibility, too extensive an education, should be married
younger, should do housework
The Helots ­ treatment of helots was barbaric, too many slaves,
enslaving other Greeks was wrong.
Tyrtaeus, Alcman, Terpander: Spartan poets, war poetry - not a lot of
evidence, since the Spartans never wrote anything down…read more

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Social Structure
1. Spartan men
2.Spartan Women
3. Inferiors ­ neither slaves
nor citizens,
Partheniai: illegitimate
1 2
Mothaces: play mates for
Spartan boys
Neodamodeis: helots who won 3
Tresantes: people who lost
4. Helots ­ prisoners of war 4
5. Perioeci - policed helots,
local governments, fought for
5…read more

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Dual Monarchy: Ephors:
One king from Agiad and 5 men form 5 villages of
Eurypontid families Sparta
Activities were watched by acted as judges, foreign
the ephors ambassadors, led council
Limited power: adoption, meetings/apella/assembly
marriage, public roads , declared war on helots,
education of young boys
Elected yearly by the
Had power over everyone
could even discipline and
arrest the king…read more

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