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Lactic Acid- Produced when the muscles are working anaerobically for too long. Prevents
muscles from working properly; muscles begins to ache/cramp up, this wont go away until the
muscle has fresh oxygen. Lactic acid occurs far more quickly in activities requiring all-out effort.
Oxygen Debt- Occurs when the rate at which muscles are required to work is greater than the
rate at which the body can take in oxygen. This results in a shortage of oxygen in the body
(going back to lactic acid) and causes muscle fatigue. The oxygen levels have to be restored to
resolve this problem.
Duration- Fatigue develops much more gradually in activities of longer duration and less
intensity.
Recovery Rate- Recovery from anaerobic activity (e.g. sprinting) occurs much more quickly
than from extended aerobic activity (e.g. marathon).
Tolerance- by increasing the intensity and duration of activity gradually you increase your
tolerance to lactic acid and oxygen debt, by making the heart stronger so pumping round
oxygenated blood to the muscles becomes more efficient.…read more

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Stronger Cardiac Muscle- regular exercise = stronger heart muscle = increased stroke
volume, increase cardiac output, lower resting heart rate.
Increased Stroke Volume- amount of blood pumped from the heart in a single beat.
Greater stroke volume = greater amount of blood being pumped around the body for each
beat.
Increased Cardiac Output- total volume of blood pumped from the heart during on minute.
Output = Stroke volume x beats per minute.
Lower resting heart rate- The heart pumps more blood round the body therefore works more
efficiently . As fitness increases , resting heart rate decreases.…read more

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Gaseous exchange- exchange of oxygen for carbon dioxide between bloodstream and lungs.
The bloodstream absorbs oxygen and disperses carbon dioxide via the alveoli.
The process occurs far more efficiently in those who undertake regular exercise.
The efficiency with which gaseous exchange occurs governs the bodies ability to make
the best of the intake of oxygen and expel waste products like carbon dioxide.
Regular exercise is beneficial to the respiratory system in the following ways:
Increased Vital Capacity - Vital Capacity = total volume of air you can move into and out of
the lungs in one deep breath.
Increased Tidal Volume- amount of air passing through the lungs while at rest. Increased vital
capacity usually indicates an increased vital capacity.
Increased Oxygen Debt Tolerance- increases the oxygen carrying capacity of the blood and
the vital capacity of the lungs allow the body to tolerate oxygen debt more efficiently during
exercise.…read more

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The blood has three primary functions:
Transport- Oxygen to muscles from lungs and carbon dioxide from muscles to lungs.
Protection- Platelets clot the blood. White blood cells fight infections
Regulation- regulates body temperature. The blood vessels near the skin expand or
contract in response to body temperature being hot or cold.
Components:
Red blood cells- essential in the transport of oxygen round the body.
White blood cells- Fight infections by producing antibodies.
Platelets- Help with blood clotting; preventing blood loss.
Plasma- liquid mainly made up of water. Carries digested food in soluble form, hormones
(such as insulin and adrenaline) and waste products (carbon dioxide and uric acid).…read more

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Some physical activities involve both aerobic and anaerobic forms of exercise e.g. football,
rugby and most other team games because they call for sustained aerobic exercise as well as
frequent out bursts of energy.
Training programmes must accommodate both aerobic and anaerobic exercise.
Aerobic activity- working with sufficient oxygen. oxygen intake must exceed the rate at which
it is being used. Removal of lactic acid must exceed the rate of production. appropriate training
can increase these limits.
Anaerobic activity- working without oxygen. this type of activity can only be sustained for a
few seconds. recovery from anaerobic work is a lot faster than aerobic work.…read more

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