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Avogadro's constant= 6.02x1023

Energy of 1 bond = Bond enthalpy x 1000/ Avogadro constant

Energy of 1 bond
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Molecules and Energy

Photons of electromagnetic radiation hit matter and transfer energy to it. The energy absorbed
causes changes to happen in the matter. The photons…

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of rubber and plastic.
However is ozone was present at ground levelit would be an ashma trigger and also very corrosive
Ozone or O3 is the most important at doing this.
of the suns harmful radiation from reachinghte earths surface.
The Atmosphere is a good sun screen as gasses absorb…

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rangy 10-14x1014 HZ
2. Ozone molecules can photodissociate when they absorb uv radiation with frequencies in the

1. an ozone molecule can combine with an O radical to form 2 O2 molecules

Once produced it can be destroyed in 2 ways

2. The 2 radicals can recombine to form O2…

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this compound then breaks down to give the product and reform the catalyst.
homogeneous catalysts normally work by forming an intermediate compound with the reactants.

Homogeneous Catalysts:

energy to overcome this lower energy barrier and rate is faster.
enthalpy. Therefore at a given temperature, more colliding reactant molecules have sufficient…

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· some take up to 10 years to decompose.
· Green house gasses
· highly flammable


· Don't produce as many Cl radicals

Advantages of replacing CFC's with HCFC's HCF's Alkanes

HCFC's HCF's Alkanes
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Chlorofluorocarbons CFC's

uses of CFC's

· solvents in dry…

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of the reaction.
Higher concentrations of products than reactants then the equilibria lies on the Right Hand Side

Higher concentrations of reactiants than products the equilibria lies on the Left Hand Side of the

Positions of the equilibria

of the reverse.
Chemical Equilibria are always dynamic because the rate…

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Le Chatelier's Principle
Le Chatelier's Principle- "If a system is at equilibrium, and a change is made in any of the
conditions, then the system responds to counteract the change as much as possible.
Increasing pressure shifts the equilibrium to the side with the less gas molecules…


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