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Plants are multicellular, autotrophic
eukaryotes. An autotroph is an organism that
does not require organic nutrients. A
photoautotroph is an organism that gets is
nutrients via energy from the Sun. E.g. via
The cells possess cell walls made of a Plants do not exhibit locomotion, as seen in protists and
carbohydrate cellulose. They store food in the other animals. Some plants show sexual reproduction, while
form of starch. The cell wall gives the plant some show asexual reproduction.
cells strength and remain after the cell dies.
The plant cells may also have chloroplasts
Plant life cycles have two alternating phases, a haploid
which contain chlorophyll and other pigments.
phase and a diploid phase. The diploid phase produces
spores, while the haploid phase produces gametes.
The plants can reproduce by means of spores or
Some plants have flowers, while some have different kinds of seeds.
capsules containing the reproductive spores (E.g.
Moss, Grimmia pulvinata).
Peyton Goddard Equation for photosynthesis:
Cells may occasionally
have flagella, e/g male 6CO2 + 6H2O C6H12O6 + 6O2
gametes in mosses.
Examples Include:
Centella Asiatica, Cyperus papyrus, Ficus, benjamina, Helianthus angustifolius,
Juncus species, Mimosa Stringillosa, Nymphaea odorata, Potamogeton species.
Which are commonly known as: Spadeleaf, Papyrus, Weeping fig, Narrowleaf
sunflower, Rushes, Climbing Hempweed, Waterlilly, Pondweed.…read more

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The cells of Prokaryotes have no nucleus, but
instead, the DNA exists as a circular
`chromosome'. It is in fact a circular DNA
molecule acting as a chromosome.
Prokaryotes may also contain plasmids- small
circular DNA molecules. Several may be
present in the cells.
The Kingdom Prokaryotae include the
bacteria and related organisms. This Kingdom
is also known as Kingdom Monera. It Prokaryotic cells contain no membrane-bound organelles.
represents the earliest group of organisms. They contain no mitochondria or endoplasmic reticulum, etc.
Prokaryotes usually exist as single cells or groups The ribosomes of the Prokaryotic cells are relatively
of cells. They are microscopic in size. Some cells small, approx. 20 nm in diameter. The cell wall is
have bacterial flagella. The structure of the flagella always present, but is made of peptidoglycan instead of
is different to that of a eukaryotic cell. cellulose in plant cells.
Peyton Goddard Although a lot of bacteria can be
Some show autotrophic nutrition, and some show harmful, some can also be helpful.
heterotrophic nutrition. Bacteria are used in the production
of antibiotics and cheeses, and
Most prokaryotes reproduce asexually through natural bacteria found on the skin
binary fission where the DNA duplicates and each is a defence mechanism (Ch.
daughter cell receives one molecule of the DNA, 10+11)
and thus are genetically identical. Therefore this
does not allow for genetic diversity. Bacteria Examples include:
reproduce sexually by the process of conjugation. Escherichia Coli, Lactobacillius,
This leads to genetic diversity. Salmonella, Staphylococcus
Aureus.…read more

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Fungi are eukaryotic organisms. They may
live in the air, water, soil and land, as well as
surviving in and on plants and animals.
Fungi are heterotrophs- they obtain their nutrients via
absorption. Fungi cell walls are made of Chitin, and the
storage carbohydrate of fungi is Glycogen.
The cells of the fungi do not have chlorophyll
and do not need to photosynthesize because Fungi have a plant-like body called Mycelium, which is made
they feed heterotrophically. up of thread-like structures known as hyphae.
Fungi can produce sexually as well as asexually. The
They have a simple body form, which may be sexual life cycle of fungi is different to that of other
unicellular and made of hyphae. Large fungi such eukaryotes. They reproduce by spores.
as mushrooms also have a compacted mass of
cells as part of their life cycle. Fungi are more related to the animal kingdom than the
plant kingdom.
The cells have cell walls, but the cells never have
cilia or flagella. Peyton Goddard Examples Include:
Penicillium chrysogenum- known
The hyphae of fungi contain a nucleus, for its production of the antibiotic
membrane-bound organelles (including penicillin. Candida- known for
mitochondria and ribosomes) and cell wall. causing opportunistic infections in
immunocompromised hosts.
Saprophytic fungi secrete enzymes to break Pneumocystis- can cause a form of
down dead organic matter in recycling. Other pneumonia in people with
fungi can be parasitic, and obtain nutrients weakened immune systems.
from their living hosts.…read more

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The Kingdom Protoctista includes a very
diverse range of organisms, which may
actually be more closely related to other
organisms in other kingdoms than they are to
each other. E.g. there are strong arguments
for classifying algae as plants.
All protoctists are eukaryotes. They have Any eukaryote that is not a fungus, plant or animal is
nuclear membranes and organelles like classified as a protoctist.
mitochondria and chloroplasts. They are
either unicellular or multicellular. Some The kingdom includes algae, protozoans and slime moulds.
protists are autotrophs, e.g. algae. Some
protists are heterotrophs, e.g. protozoans,
who eat by phagocytosis. Protists are so small that they do not need any special
organs for exchange of gases or for excretion. They
Protists reproduce asexually by binary fission, and simply rely on diffusion through the plasma membrane.
a few species are capable of sexual reproduction.
Peyton Goddard Examples Include:
Some protoctists have animal-like cells (no cell
wall). These are sometimes known as protozoa. Plankton, Amoeba, Diatom,
Others have plant-like cells (with cellulose cell Euglena, Paramecium, Algae,
walls and chloroplasts). These are sometimes Chytrids, Protozoans, Sporozoans,
known as algae. Giardia lambilia.
(Giarda lambilia is an animal-like
Protozoans are unicellular, heterotrophic organisms. protoctist.)
Algae are photosynthetic organisms.
Protozoa may move via cilia, and algae may move via flagella/ a flagellum.…read more


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