OCR Biology Module B2 Notes, Higher Tier

Full set of notes, got 100 UMS revising just from these, hope other have the same luck!

HideShow resource information
Preview of OCR Biology Module B2 Notes, Higher Tier

First 467 words of the document:

Module 2 Understanding out Environment
B2A Ecology in our school grounds
HABITAT The place where an organism lives
ENVIRONMENT The surroundings of an organism
ECOSYSTEM The biotic and abiotic components and the interactions between them
BIOTIC COMPONENT Living organisms (plants animals)
ABIOTIC COMPONENT Nonliving factors (O2 Concentration, CO2 concentration, temperature, humidity,
light intensity.)
POPULATION Number of organisms of one species in a particular area at a particular time.
NICHE The role of an organism
COMMUNITY This is composed of all the plants + animals living in a habitat (Soil Community badgers,
Earthworms, Spiders)
1) branched keys
2) use of statements (Dichotomous key)
Sampling Techniques
square 10 x 10 grid
plants count percentage cover of a certain area of plants
animals identify and count living organism
Random coordinates are generated, at each coordinate a quadrat is laid out on the bottom left hand corner
Repeat until 10% of the total area has been sampled
Place measuring tape through area of change
at intervals a quadrat is place along the tape and the % cover of a plant species is recorded
Tree is shaken for certain length of time any insects which fall onto the rug are sucked up by the pooter
they are then identified, counted and released
Used to catch flying insects
Stand upstream of the net and shuffling the streambed for a certain length of time.
Insects caught are placed in a white enamel dish: identified, counted, and recorded
Investigates animals living in a leaf litter (layer of dead leaves on the ground)
DECOMPOSERS animals who feed off the leaf litter
a sample of leaf litter placed in tulgren funnel bright light shone onto it, animals move away from the light and fall
through the tube into a beaker of alcohol (kills them)Collected, indentified, counted.
enables capturing of small ground nocturnal animals (beetles) need alcohol in case carnivorous insect kills other
collected insects
Limitations of counting/collecting methods
1) sample size affects accuracy of estimate
2) Samples may be unrepresentative of population
Natural and Artificial Ecosystems
Natural not affected by humans
Artificial man made
Natural more biodiversity
Artificial less biodiversity (kill garden pests etc)
(A) Herbicide
(B) Pesticide
(C) Inorganic Fertilisers
Artificial use these faster rate of photosynthesis=higher crop yield
Some ecosystems not explored yet (ocean depths undiscovered species?)
Organisms often restricted to certain habitats as adaptations (fishgillswater)

Other pages in this set

Page 2

Preview of page 2

Here's a taster:

B2B Grouping Organisms
5 kingdoms
1) Bacteria
2) Protoctists
3) Fungi
4) Plants
5) Animals
PLANT KINGDOM contain chloroplasts, make own food (photosynthesis) more spreading
ANIMAL KINGDOM move, cant make own food, more compact movement
FUNGI Organisms not classified as animal/plant they are...…read more

Page 3

Preview of page 3

Here's a taster:

­ growth and repair
Glucose/ sucrose are SOLUBLE SUGARSdissolve in water transportation
starch is INSOLUBLE doesn't dissolve in water useful for storage
What affects the rate of photosynthesis?
1) Light Intensity
Brighter the light/faster rate of photosynthesis
2) Temperature
Up to 37°C, higher the temperature/ faster rate of photosynthesis
37°C heat denatures enzymes ­ responsible for chemical reactions in photosynthesis
3) Carbon Dioxide
Higher CO2 concentration/ faster rate of photosynthesis
When a certain factor is increased (light intensity) it eventually reaches a point where the…read more

Page 4

Preview of page 4

Here's a taster:

Etc etc.
Other factors affect size of population: harsh winters/disease/lack of food or shelter
PARASITISM Parasite feeds of a host causing harm
1) Tape Worm
In pigs cysts
uncooked pork eaten from infected pig tapeworm grows inside intestines
head has double row of hooks/four suckers: attaches onto intestine
segments grow from head (2m) break off into human faeces pig eats this.…read more

Page 5

Preview of page 5

Here's a taster:

How plants are adapted for wind pollination
Usually green/brown
Have stamens hang outside plant (filament is very long)
Copious amounts of pollen produced light small, smooth
Stigmas hang outside plant feathery (increase surface area to trap pollen grains)
mature at a different time prevents self fertilization
How plants are adapted for insect pollination
Brightly coloured attract insects
UV guidelines insects can see, directing to nectar
Flowers produce scent attract insects
Pollen grain larger/heavier/has hooks to attach to insects body (sticky pollen)
Animals/ plants adapted to…read more

Page 6

Preview of page 6

Here's a taster:

Resistance to antibiotics
In bacteria population mutation occurs that code for antibiotic resistance
leads to superbugs, resistant to EVERY antibiotic
widespread use of antibiotics= increase selection for resistant bacteria
a) Antibiotics only prescribed for bacterial infections
b) use them sparingly
c) Whole course of antibiotics should be TAKEN
3) Rats resistant to warfarin
Many people don't like natural selection
conflicts with religious views
believe literal creation of men
conflicts against theory of intelligent design (widespread in us)
Evolution occurs as characteristics we get in…read more

Page 7

Preview of page 7

Here's a taster:

Highly polluted rat tailed maggots
Medium polluted blood worm
Clean dragonfly nymphs
Air Pollution
Measured using lichens (biological indicator species)
Lichen can't survive in area of air pollution contains sulphur dioxide
Different species of lichen survive in different levels of SO2
B2H Sustainability
Animals become extinct as
1) Human hunt them
2) Climate change
3) Competition for resources
4) Habitat destruction
5) Pollution
How we can help endangered animals
1) Protecting Habitats
area of land, protected by law.…read more

Page 8

Preview of page 8

Here's a taster:

Sustainable development whatever is removed must be replaced in the environment
trees cut down (furniture fuel) replace with young saplings and coppicing occurs from stumps
many woodlands have visitor centres= education= conservation
population size, waste products, food, energy demands are important to sustainable development
overfishing in north sea
if population drop below certain level, never recover
fisherman given quotas limit number removed
Requires international agreement…read more


No comments have yet been made

Similar Biology resources:

See all Biology resources »See all resources »