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Biology
Module 2 Understanding out Environment
B2A Ecology in our school grounds
Definitions
HABITAT The place where an organism lives
ENVIRONMENT The surroundings of an organism
ECOSYSTEM The biotic and abiotic components and the interactions between them
BIOTIC COMPONENT Living organisms (plants animals)
ABIOTIC COMPONENT Nonliving factors (O2 Concentration, CO2…

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B2B Grouping Organisms
5 kingdoms
1) Bacteria
2) Protoctists
3) Fungi
4) Plants
5) Animals

PLANT KINGDOM contain chloroplasts, make own food (photosynthesis) more spreading
ANIMAL KINGDOM move, cant make own food, more compact movement
FUNGI Organisms not classified as animal/plant they are...
SAPHROPHYTIC ORGANISMS, feed on dead decaying matter…

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5) converted into proteins ­ growth and repair
Glucose/ sucrose are SOLUBLE SUGARSdissolve in water transportation
starch is INSOLUBLE doesn't dissolve in water useful for storage





What affects the rate of photosynthesis?
1) Light Intensity
Brighter the light/faster rate of photosynthesis
2) Temperature
Up to 37°C, higher the temperature/ faster…

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4) less food available to predator many starve
5) fewer predators, prey number increases again
6) Etc etc.
Other factors affect size of population: harsh winters/disease/lack of food or shelter
Parasites
PARASITISM Parasite feeds of a host causing harm
1) Tape Worm
In pigs cysts
uncooked pork eaten from infected…

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How plants are adapted for wind pollination
Usually green/brown
Have stamens hang outside plant (filament is very long)
Copious amounts of pollen produced light small, smooth
Stigmas hang outside plant feathery (increase surface area to trap pollen grains)
mature at a different time prevents self fertilization

How plants are adapted…

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decreases melanic moth
increases light speckled moth
2) Resistance to antibiotics
In bacteria population mutation occurs that code for antibiotic resistance
leads to superbugs, resistant to EVERY antibiotic
widespread use of antibiotics= increase selection for resistant bacteria
a) Antibiotics only prescribed for bacterial infections
b) use them sparingly
c) Whole…

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Highly polluted rat tailed maggots
Medium polluted blood worm
Clean dragonfly nymphs

Air Pollution
Measured using lichens (biological indicator species)
Lichen can't survive in area of air pollution contains sulphur dioxide
Different species of lichen survive in different levels of SO2

B2H Sustainability
Animals become extinct as
1) Human hunt…

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Sustainable development whatever is removed must be replaced in the environment
WOODLAND
trees cut down (furniture fuel) replace with young saplings and coppicing occurs from stumps
many woodlands have visitor centres= education= conservation
population size, waste products, food, energy demands are important to sustainable development
FISHING
overfishing in north sea…

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