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Chapter 1

Outline the need for communication systems within
multicellular organisms, with reference to the need to respond
to changes in the internal and external environment and to
coordinate the activities of different organs. (A2.1)

As an organism grows and develops more cells it becomes more
difficult for the innermost…

Page 2

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State that neuronal and hormonal systems are examples of cell
signalling. (A2.1)

There are two major forms of cell signalling, these are the hormonal
and nueronal systems. The hormonal system is one specific to
longer term responses due to the release of specific chemicals into
the blood stream which will…

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Describe the physiological and behavioural responses that maintain a
constant core body temperature in ectotherms
and endotherms, with reference to peripheral temperature receptors,
the hypothalamus muscles.

To maintain a constant core body temperature, ectotherms have
physiological and behavioural responses

The horned lizard expands its ribcage and the frilled lizard…

Page 4

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When hot, the hairs lie flat, providing little insulation, meaning heat can be
through convection and radiation.
When cold, hairs raise to trap a layer of air, insulating the skin and reducing
Arterioles leading to capillaries in skin


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