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Revision for AS OCR Biology Topic 1
Magnification: The no. of times an image is bigger than the object itself.
Resolution: The ability to distinguish between two separate points. The higher the resolution, the
more detail you can see.
Staining: To see cell structure more clearly as biological material is transparent.
Mag. down to 2000x
Resolution down to 0.2 micrometers
Living tissue can be examined
Natural colours can be seen
Not expensive £100500
Mag. down to 500,000 x
Resolution down to 0.5 nanometers
Kills living tissue
Natural colours cannot be seen
Can't be moved around
Site where aerobic respiration takes place. Double membrane, outer membrane is simple and quite
permeable. Inner membrane is highly folded to form cristae which give it a large surface area. The
space inside the inner membrane is known as the matrix.
The solution inside the cell membrane. Contains enzymes from respiration and other metabolic
reactions together with salts, sugars, nucleotides and amino acids.
Largest organelle. Surrounded by a nuclear envelope which is a double membrane with pores in it
containing proteins which control the exit of substances such as RNA and ribosomes. The interior
is known as the nucleoplasm which has a lot of chromatin (a DNA/Protein complex in 2:1 ratio
containing genetic material). The dark region is known as the nucleolus which is involved in making
Site where photosynthesis happens. Has a triple membrane, third being the thylakoid membrane
which folds into thylakoid disks, which is stacked into a pile known as the grana. the space
between the thylakoid disks and the inner membrane is known as the stroma. thylakoid membrane
contains the pigment chlorophyll, which is where photosynthesis takes place.
Site where protein synthesis takes place. Composed of RNA and protein and is manufactured in the
nucleolus. Ribosomes are either free in the cytoplasm, where they make proteins to be used by the
cell, or are attached to ribosomes, where they make protein to be exported out of the cell.
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Series of membrane channels involved in synthesising and transporting substances, like lipids,
needed by the cell.
Studded with Ribosomes. The ribosomes synthesis proteins , which are processed by the RER and
exported out of the cell via the Golgi Apparatus.
A series of flattened membrane vesicles called the cisternae. The Golgi Apparatus modifies and
packages the protein from the RER to the cell surface membrane by secreting a vesicle.
A small membranebound sac formed from the ER.…read more
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Responsible for transporting materials around the cell ie. cell division.
Protein in the cytoskeleton allow movement ie flagella.…read more