OCR Biology 2.1.18 Enzymes are Globular Proteins Notes

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Emily Summers
March 12th 2010
2.1.18 Enzymes are Globular Proteins
Catalyst Molecul
e/el
ement
t
hat
speeds up
a chemi
cal
r
eact
ion
but
i
s not
used
up
in
the
r
ea ct
ion and
remains
unchanged
aft
er
the
react
ion
Globul
ar
protei
ns
have speci
fi
c t
ert
iar
y st
ruct
ures.
The shape
come s
fr
om the
prot
ein'
s
pr
imary
str
ucture
(Sequence
of amino
acids)
and
it
's
secondary
str
uctur
e.
In
globul
ar
pr
otei
ns t
he ter
ti
ary
str
uct
ure usual
ly
has hydr
ophobic
R
groups
in
the
centr
e and
hydr
ophil
ic
R
groups
around
the out
side
of
the
ball
.
Enzymes are:
Globul
ar
prot
eins
and
sol
ubl
e i
n wat
er
Abl
e t
o br
eak
mol
ecul
es
down
or
bui
ld
them
up!
Bi
ologi
cal
cat
alyst
s
Speci
fi
c
because
they
cat
alyse
a r
eact
ion
w i
th
onl
y one
type
of
subst
rat
e
Thei
r
globul
ar
str
uct
ure
has
a pocket
cal
led
an
act
ive
sit
e
Act
ivi
ty
aff
ect
ed
by
temper
atur
e and
pH (
R at
e of
r
eact
ion)
Enzymes ar
e l
arge
mo l
ecules
w i
th
hundreds
of
amino aci
ds.
A l
ot
of
these
amino aci
ds
work
to
keep t
he
specif
ic
ter
ti
ary
struct
ure
of
the
enzyme .
The
funct
ion
of
the
enzyme
depends
on t
he shape,
and
for
the
enzyme
to
w or
k cor
rect
ly
the
ter
ti
ary
str
uctur
e must
be
maint
ained
speci
fi
call
y.
Al
l
of
the st
ruct
ures
(pr
imary,
secondary,
t
ert
iary)
of
t
he
en z
yme
is
invol
ved
in
the
speci
fi
c
act
ive
sit
e shape.
(
Wh ere
the
catal
yti
c act
ivi
ty
of
the
enzyme happens)
Enzymes
are
fast
er
than
catal
yst
s and
because
they
are
speci
fi
c t
o one
react
ion
they
do
not
pr
oduce
unw ant
ed by
product
s.
An
indi
vi
dual
cell
coul
d cont
ain
over
one
thousand
enzymes
to
cat
alyse
ever
y pr
ocess,
l
ike
di
gest
ion,
r
espir
ati
on ,
phot
osynthesi
s.

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Emily Summers
Subst
rat
e
Product
E.g.
Mat
lose
glucose
+ gl
ucose
Enzyme Reaction Catalysed
Lact
ase Breaki
n g
do wn l
actose i
nto
g l
ucose and
gal
actose mo nome rs. Lact
os e
int
olerant
peopl
e
d on'
t
ha ve
this enzyme so
suff
er
bl
oati
n g,
stomac h
cramp s
w h en t
hey i
nge st
l
actose.…read more

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