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OCR Biology

Unit 2 : Module 1 | Ahmad Beldo




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Ahmad Beldo

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Water
Specific Heat Capacity: The energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 gram of a
substance by 1°C.

Cohesion: Attraction between molecules of the same type.

Water is Vital to living organisms:
Makes up about 80% of cells content.
Reactant in chemical reactions (photosynthesis, hydrolysis)
Solvent, useful…

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Proteins
Proteins are made from long chains of amino acids:
Dipeptide bond formed when 2 amino acids join together
Polypeptide is formed when more than two amino acids join together

Difference amino acids have different variable groups:
All Amino acids have the same general structure. But a different…

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o Hydrogen Bonds.
Quaternary Structure: Determined by the tertiary structure of individual polypeptide chains
bonded together, influenced by all.

Protein Shape relates to its function:
Fibrous Proteins are strong and rope shaped and usually found in connective tissue and is
sometimes soluble.

Globular Proteins are round and compact.…

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Carbohydrates
Carbohydrates are made from Monosaccharides:
Glucose is a monosaccharide with
six carbon atoms in each
molecule.
Glucose has 2 forms, Alpha ()
and Beta ()




Glucose's structure is related to its function as it's the main energy source in humans/animals. It is
soluble and its bonds contain…

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Cellulose ­ Major Component of cell walls in plants ():
Long, unbranched chains of beta-glucose
Bonds between sugars are straight, cellulose chains straight.
Chains interlinked by hydrogen bonds to form strong fibres called micro fibrils.
The strong fibres mean cellulose provides structural support for cells (e.g. Plant Walls)…

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Lipids
Triglycerides are a kind of lipid:
Made from one molecule of glycerol with three fatty acids
attached.
Fatty acid molecules have long tails of
hydrocarbons (carbon chains with hydrogen atoms
branching off)
Tails are hydrophobic, making them insoluble in
water.
Fatty acids consist of the same base…

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They bind to the hydrophobic tails of the phospholipids, causing them to pack closely
together. This helps make the membrane less fluid and more rigid.




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Ahmad Beldo

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How Science Works:
Biochemical Tests for Molecules

Use Benedict's Tests for sugars:
Sugar: General term for Monosaccharides ad disaccharides. All sugars can be classified as
reducing for non-reducing.

Reducing Sugars: Includes all monosaccharides (e.g. glucose) and some disaccharides (e.g.
maltose)

Add blue Benedict's reagent to sample and heat…

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Colorimetry is used to determine concentration of a Glucose Solution:
It is a quantitative version of the Benedict's test which allows you to estimate how much
reducing sugar (e.g. glucose) there is in the solution
Uses Colorimetry ­ Measures strength of a coloured
solution by how much light…

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