OCR B (Salters) - F334 - Chemistry of Materials - The Materials Revolution

A detailed set of notes on the MR module in the F334 Chemistry of Materials exam from the OCR B (Salters) examination board

Link to my notes on "What's in a Medicine?"

http://getrevising.co.uk/resources/ocr_b_salters_f334_chemistry_of_materials_whats_in_a_medicine

Link to my notes on "The Steel Story"

http://getrevising.co.uk/resources/ocr_b_salters_f334_chemistry_of_materials_the_steel_story

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  • Created by: Michael
  • Created on: 23-12-12 12:52
Preview of OCR B (Salters) - F334 - Chemistry of Materials - The Materials Revolution

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SANDOWN BAY ACADEMY
OCR Chemistry B (Salters)
Notes, Task Sheets, Questions and Answers
Michael Chard
This document consists of notes from all kinds of sources, answers to task sheets given out during
lessons (which have not been carried out on paper) and any questions from text books and any
relevant past papers, along with the answers.

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OCR Chemistry B (Salters)
Michael Chard
Table of Contents
The Materials Revolution (MR) ............................................................................................................... 3
Electronegativity and Intermolecular Forces ...................................................................................... 3
Electronegativity ............................................................................................................................. 3
Polar Molecules............................................................................................................................... 3
Intermolecular Forces ..................................................................................................................... 4
Amines, Amides and Hydrolysis .......................................................................................................... 5
Amines ............................................................................................................................................ 5
Amides ............................................................................................................................................ 5
Forming Alcohols from Hydrolysis .................................................................................................. 6
Recrystallisation .............................................................................................................................. 6
Polymers ............................................................................................................................................. 6
Addition Polymers ........................................................................................................................... 6
Condensation Polymers .................................................................................................................. 7
Monomers....................................................................................................................................... 7
Green Chemistry ................................................................................................................................. 7
Polymer Properties ............................................................................................................................. 8
Structure and Bonding .................................................................................................................... 8
Tm and Tg ......................................................................................................................................... 9
Crystalline Polymers........................................................................................................................…read more

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OCR Chemistry B (Salters)
Michael Chard
The Materials Revolution (MR)
Specification:
A study of condensation polymers and other modern materials
The chemical ideas in this module are:
Condensation polymers;
Amines and amides;
Factors affecting the properties of polymers;
Disposal of polymers.
Electronegativity and Intermolecular Forces
Electronegativity
The ability to attract the bonding electrons in a covalent bond is called electronegativity
This is because some atoms (it is important to say atoms instead of elements/ particles
molecules etc...…read more

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OCR Chemistry B (Salters)
Michael Chard
o Lone pairs of electrons on the central atom also have an effect on the overall
polarity and may cancel out the dipole created by the bonding pairs ­ causing it to
be non-polar overall.
Intermolecular Forces
Intermolecular forces are very weak
They are forces between molecules.…read more

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OCR Chemistry B (Salters)
Michael Chard
Amines, Amides and Hydrolysis
Amines
Amines are organic derivatives of ammonia
If one or more hydrogen's in ammonia is replaced with an organic group, R, you get an
amine
o You get 3 types of amines:
Primary amines (the N is attached to one carbon and two hydrogen's)
Secondary amines (the N is attached to two carbons and one hydrogen)
Tertiary amines (the N is attached to three carbons and no hydrogen's)
Small amines smell similar to ammonia, a…read more

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OCR Chemistry B (Salters)
Michael Chard
There are two ways of hydrolysing amides.…read more

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OCR Chemistry B (Salters)
Michael Chard
The individual, small alkenes which have joined up together to form the polymer is called a
monomer.
Condensation Polymers
Include polyesters, polyamides and polypeptides
o Polyamides are made by condensing diamines and dicarboxylic acids.
o Polyesters are made by condensing diols and dicarboxylic acids
Usually involve two different types of monomer
Each monomer has at least two functional groups.…read more

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OCR Chemistry B (Salters)
Michael Chard
o Once they've been used plastic items are thrown away. A lot of this is just buried as
landfill, where it can take a very long time to decompose
o Burying plastic means more has to be manufactured to make new products ­ using
more energy and raw materials
o It is now common to measure the entire life cycle of a material.…read more

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OCR Chemistry B (Salters)
Michael Chard
Tm and Tg
Tm
This stands for melting point and all thermoplastics have one
If you heat a thermoplastic polymer to above its melting point, it will soften and then melt
This is because the heat energy that is being added, disrupts the intermolecular bonds that
hold the polymer chains together
The chains start to be able to slide over one another ­ so the plastic can change shape more
easily
Tg
This stand for glass transition point
If…read more

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OCR Chemistry B (Salters)
Michael Chard
Modifying Polymer Properties
MODIFICATION EXPLANATION EXAMPLE
Copolymerisation By mixing monomers Making a styrene-butadiene copolymer
you will end up with a Polystyrene has a high glass transition
polymer chain that temperature, so it is very hard, but
has different brittle at room temperature
polymers made from Polybutadiene has a low glass
a polymer made from transition temperature, and is rubbery
any of the monomers and flexible at low temperatures
alone If you make a polymer from a mixture
of styrene…read more

Comments

Layla

You are bloody brilliant!


Layla

Got anything on f335?

Michael

Hi Layla - Thanks! Sorry, I haven't done notes for F335! I've gone for the approach of cramming my head and doing the past papers again and again!

Louisa

AMAZINGLY HELPFUL!

Michael

Glad to help Louisa!

safa

these are all soooo amazing!!!! Where have these been all my life

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