OCR AS Chemistry F331: Chemical Bonding

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  • Created on: 22-08-13 17:33
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Chemical Bonding
What type of bond?
The type of bond depends on the two atoms involved in the bond
Metal Non-metal
Metal Metallic bonding Ionic bonding
Non-metal Ionic bonding Covalent bonding
Properties depending on bonding
Structure Type of Melting point Solubility in Electrical
bonding water conductivity
Ionic lattice Ionic High Usually Only if molten
soluble or in solution
Giant Covalent High Insoluble Won't
covalent conduct,
network apart from
graphite
Simple Covalent Low Usually Won't
molecular insoluble conduct
Metallic Metallic High Insoluble Will conduct
lattice

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Ionic Bonding
Compounds are atoms of different elements bonded together
- When different elements join or bond together, you get a compound
- There are two main types of bonding in compounds ­ ionic and covalent
Atoms are usually more stable if they have a full outer shell of electrons.
The metal atom transfers electrons to the non-metal atom so that all atoms end up
with a full outer shell of electrons.
This results in the formation of ions.…read more

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Covalent Bonding
Molecules are formed when 2 or more atoms bond together, and are held together
by covalent bonds.
In covalent bonding, two atoms share electrons, so they've both got a full outer shell of
electrons.
Both the positive nuclei are attracted electrostatically to the shared electrons.
Bonds formed by sharing electrons are called covalent bonds.
If a pair of electrons is involved, the bond is called a single bond.
By sharing electrons all the atoms achieve more stable electron structures, like noble
gases.…read more

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Metallic Bonding
Metal atoms cannot achieve the stable electron arrangement of a noble gas by sharing
electrons with each other of transferring electrons from one to the other ­ they don't have
enough outer shell electrons to allow them to do this.
The metal atoms therefore lose their outer shells to form a lattice of regularly
spaced positive ions.
The outer electrons from each atom contribute to a common ` pool' of electrons which
move randomly throughout the lattice of positive ions.…read more

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The metallic bonding model explains why metals do what they do:
The melting points of metals are generally high because of the strong metallic bonding,
with the number of delocalised electrons per atom affecting the melting point.
The more there are, the stronger the bonding will be and the higher the melting point.
As there are no bonds holding specific ions together, the metal ions can s lide over each
other when the structure is puled, so metals can be shaped and are ductile.…read more

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